Main features and identification points of Daming Xuande blue-and-white porcelain ware
Ming Xuanzong Zhu Zhanji (1398-1435 January 31,1435) Han, the fifth emperor of the Ming Dynasty.The blue-and-white porcelain made by Jingdezhen Imperial Kiln Factory in Xuande of Ming Dynasty plays an important role in the development history of Chinese ceramics.Blue-and-white porcelain has reached its peak in firing technology. It is famous for its simple, elegant shape, brilliant glaze color and colorful decoration. It has become one of the most famous porcelain products in China.”Jingdezhen Tao Lu” evaluation Xuande porcelain: “All the best, the most expensive blue and white.
Xuande Qing Hua Rui animal pattern cricket jar in Ming Dynasty
1. Modeling features: The overall style of Ming Xuande porcelain is majestic and vigorous, solemn and primitive, large vessels increase, compared with the disk, bowl, dishes for the production of much more difficult, the body is made up of up and down sub-sections, and then made by bonding, the body is thick, production is very regular, Proportional coordination, there is no deformation phenomenon, that the molding technology and firing technology are very mature, the bottom of the large plate shallow, the bottom of the foot introverted.The small pieces of utensils are exquisite and delicate, moderately thick and thin, and have elegant and beautiful artistic demeanor.
2, Fetal body, bottom foot characteristic: Ming Xuande porcelain body is thicker than Yongle Dynasty, fetal quality is precise fine, white hard.Plum bottle, large market, large pot is not glazed white fine sand bottom, hand stroking very smooth, the foot has flint red spots.The small and medium-sized ware is the bottom of the glaze.The body of the kiln is made of porcelain stone and kaolin. It is white and clear. The body is thinner than that of Yongle kiln.
3. Glaze features: Mingxuande porcelain glaze thick and moist, soft and non-glare, more white in the pan-green, commonly known as” bright blue glaze. “Glaze surface is not smooth, like orange peel, commonly known as” orange peel glaze “, a few have a slice.If under the high magnifying glass observation, the glaze is full of big and small bubbles, even small bubbles wipe big bubbles.Almost all kinds of porcelain in the Xuande Dynasty were made of this glaze.The color of the kiln is mostly pale blue, the glaze is rich and bright, and the glaze has bubbles and orange peel brown eyes.
characteristics of glaze
Ming Zhang Ying Wen “clear secret” on kiln utensils described “I Xuanmiao kiln ware, thin material, hidden orange peel lines, ice split eel blood lines, several with officials, your kiln enemies. That is, dark flowers, safflower, green flowers, have not been, for a generation of the best.”
Xuande blue-and-white porcelain glaze juice is clean, the glaze is blue, commonly known as” bright blue glaze. “The glaze surface is thick and moist, the luster is soft and does not pierce the eye, the glaze surface is not quite flat, like orange peel, commonly known as” orange peel glaze “, very few have the opening piece.In fact, orange peel glaze is due to the bubble in the glaze.If in the high magnifying glass under observation, the glaze is full of large and small bubbles, and even small bubbles wipe large bubbles, such as stars.
Most imitations of the overall glaze color bright gray or lime white or red, part of the high imitations for the removal of the surface of the thief light to achieve the effect of green white, and in the glaze added zinc and other elements, but such imitations of glaze color is mostly green white and not flashing green.It is different from the real green jade.
4. Blue and white materials: Ming Xuande porcelain blue and white materials are imported, domestic two, to import hemp blue materials mainly described.Drawings are used either alone or in combination, often depending on the pattern and deciding to use the cobalt material to paint the part.In the drawing often use domestic materials light trace hook line, imported material rendering.
5. Features: Xuande Qinghua style once had a full body of the statement, porcelain plate without exception all have a, other according to the shape of the mouth, ear, neck, bowl heart, foot, flow, abdomen are written.Early for the four-character seal, the other wrote more regular script.There are six-character and four-character.Six-character money has” Daming Xuande year “double-loop two-line regular script, six-word horizontal, six-word vertical.There are two lines, two rings, four horizontal, four-character vertical, four-character seal book.Most of the four-character books” Daming Xuande’s” are written in double circles of green flowers and six characters in the center of all the objects, and the four-character funds of “Daming Xuande’s” and” Xuande’s” are used individually.Most of the folk kilns are written in “Fu”, “Shou” and Sanskrit.Font structure layout is very regular, the distance between the word and the word, stroke thickness moderate, imitate the style of Jin Tang Xiaokai, quite have the charm of the style calligraphy.”Year” is a form of art that began in the Ming Dynasty with the name of Emperor’s Year printed on porcelain.In Ming Dynasty, there were two kinds of regular script inscriptions and seal script inscriptions.Seal book inscriptions from the beginning of Yongle, after Xuande, Hongzhi, Wanli and other dynasties also have.With seal book inscriptions to carve hidden money-based, generally for the “so-and-so year” four-word.Moreover, cone-cut pieces are mostly found on single-color glaze porcelain.Ming Xuande began to appear in the blue-and-white style inscriptions, inscribed in the blue-and-white frame or circle of the annual funds have “Daming so-and-so year”, “Daming so-and-so year-made”, “so-and-so year”, etc., became the Ming Dynasty and the Qing Dynasty throughout the main form of inscriptions.In addition to the edge of the mouth, shoulder, abdomen and other non-circular frame years, Xuande kiln porcelain to blue and white, red color in the center of the device, the position of the bottom of the device inscriptions, there are single loop, double loop, single frame, double frame, oval, lotus, and other edge decoration.There are two types of writing: straight line and horizontal book.In short, Xuande year of the number of types of styles, the Ming Dynasty style of the most.This phenomenon is to show that Xuande is” annual “at the beginning of the stage, there is no fixed standard format formation, so it will leave a” Daming Xuande porcelain characteristics” of the statement.