The Method of the Fifteenth and the Key Points of the Identification of Yuanqinghua Porcelain

Yuan blue-and-white porcelain (also known as Yuan Qing-hua), is the Yuan Dynasty production of blue-and-white porcelain.Blue and white porcelain was produced in the Tang Dynasty and flourished in the Yuan Dynasty.The mature blue-and-white porcelain appeared in Jingdezhen in Yuan Dynasty. The most important feature of the decoration is the full composition, multi-level without disorder.Yuan blue-and-white porcelain changes the traditional porcelain implicit and introverted style, with a clear visual effect, giving a concise pleasure.With its heroic spirit and original spirit of art, the art of blue-and-white painting to the peak, established the prosperity and long-lasting future of blue-and-white porcelain.

introduction

The social drama of Yuan Dynasty flourished, and the northern Mongols were fascinated by the historical stories of the Han people in the South. The plot of the characters in the drama moved deeply the simple feelings of the Mongols.Solidify the story on the heavy and strong porcelain pot, put into the yurts, in the storage of food and sundries, but also at all times to appreciate the endless aftertaste of the drama story.Even if you kick with your feet, you won’t be easily crushed.Those thick and flat Yuan Qing Hua can, the Mongolian royal aristocracy to become a practical tool of life.Its painting, the general use of paper-cut or plate-cut block printing to take part of the puzzle, in the porcelain tire filled with color.Exhibits the rich new year picture flavor.Because lack original, except modelling is different, delicate degree is much the same as small.The Yuan Dynasty was a period of intense integration of the North and the South cultures.I can’t see the confusion of the future, I don’t know how many intellectuals know the past and know the present.

glaze layer

The use of the two-component formula of the Yuan-Qing-Hua tread increases the firing temperature so that the glaze formula can be changed accordingly.

Jingdezhen porcelain glaze has always been made from glaze fruit mixed with glaze ash. The glaze fruit is a kind of ceramic stone with relatively shallow weathering. The main component is limestone.In the Tang and Song Dynasties, the glaze fruit was mixed with glaze ash before Jingdezhen porcelain.Glazed fruit is a kind of shallow weathered porcelain stone. The main components are silica and aluminum trioxide. The main components of glaze ash are limestone.In Yuan Dynasty, the content of glaze fruit was increased and the content of glaze ash was reduced. Thus, the aluminum trioxide of glaze layer was increased and calcium oxide was decreased, which changed the state of glaze, made the thickness of glaze layer can be increased, and the luster of glaze surface was soft.The glaze layer of some specimens was observed with a high magnifying glass. Large bubbles were scattered in the dense mist-like bubbles, and there was no medium bubble transition.This is not the case with blue-white glaze and pivot glaze at the same time.The blue-and-white porcelain glaze in early Ming Dynasty also showed bubbles, but the distribution of big, medium and small bubbles was different from that of Yuan-Qing-hua.Some objects have orange peel or brown eyes on the glaze surface.

It was found that the content of calcium oxide in the glaze of Yuan Dynasty decreased from 15% to 8% ~ 9%, and the content of potassium and sodium increased from 3% to 6%.The change of composition increases the firing temperature of glaze and the concentration of glaze.Due to the different firing temperature, the glaze color also correspondingly changed.

There are three kinds of glaze of Yuan-Qing-hua:

(1) Shadow Blue Glaze

Also known as blue and white glaze, in the early and mid-Yuan Dynasty on the use of blue and white materials with home-made.The blue-white glaze of the late Yuan Dynasty is a derivative of the shadow blue-white glaze, which is different from the shadow blue-white glaze of the early and middle Yuan Dynasty.The glaze surface is grayish or yellowing, the glaze layer luster is stronger, or is the matte light, besides the firing technology lack, also and the glaze layer in the glaze gray proportion is higher related.Yuan Dynasty blue and white porcelain with blue and white glaze, transparent, the surface of the tread can be seen fine skin layer, glaze is not smooth, touch with the hand has a bumpy feeling.The body of the body of the body of the body of the body of the body of the body of the body of the body of the body of the body of the body of the body of the body of the body of the body of the body of the body of the body of the body of the body of the body of the body of the body of the body of the body of the light blue, warm in the light blue, except the circle of the water is green, often show light teeth yellow, sometimes show opacity, its color, its color, its color will show with the change with the humidity in the change with the humidity in the humidity in the humidity in the air in the humidity in the air, the change of the humidity, the air, the change of the humidity, the change of the air, the change of the change of the change of the change of the change of theYuan blue vase, can type, oblique light through the tire glaze will show a little irregular rice-white silk stripes, also known as glaze decoration.There is no air bubble on the green flower under the primary glaze. When the temperature is high, the embryo glaze appears to be dry, but sometimes there is a slight sweating phenomenon.The color development of the primary glaze seems to be active.

(2) White Glaze

From the mid-14th century until the beginning of the year began to use imported green materials.The glaze is white and green, the glaze is bright and bright, the glaze is clear and moist, the glaze is clear and clear, the glaze is clear and blue, and the glaze is bright and often has a flicker feeling, the foot circle glaze surface shows light water green.With the right transparency, brightness and color, can better foil the performance of the blue and white.

(3) White glaze

At the end of Yuan Dynasty, the green flowers began to be used, the glaze was milky, and the hand-scratched finger marks were often left in the outer circle of these utensils.With the exception of jade jug spring vase, the base is generally glaze-free.Glazes of varying size and shape on the bottom of the tire.There is a circle of wide and narrow glaze mark near the bottom of the high foot cup.Mui bottle, such as thin body type bottle inside mouth along the bottom of the natural fetus.The inner wall of the big pot is glazed by hanging glaze.The inside of the cover is plain, light earthy yellow, with fine glaze spots.The glaze surface of the Yuan-Qing-Hua apparatus is basically flat, and the glaze surface of the large-scale cutters is slightly raised at the bonding place of the body, the glaze of the mouth is thick and uneven, and the glaze is beige on the thin part.From the residual organ, the neck of the bottle below the inside of the body without glaze, bottle, can of the bottom or high-foot cup, bowl of the foot of common pieces of glaze spots, each of the glaze spots around or foot edge and shrink glaze are presented with a light-colored flint red edge line.There is a burr phenomenon at the edge of the mouth of the object (i. e., a small bubble breaks).Some of the surface of the glaze shrinkage phenomenon, not serious, belonging to a few phenomena.Glaze feel warm such as jade, light feeling soft do not pierce eyes, if too bright or have stronger bright point, it is worth considering.

Method for simple identification of Yuanqing porcelain

The Yuanqing flower, taking the “Zhengzheng” as the model, also includes” Yanyou type “and some blue-and-white porcelain with simple patterns and low sales levels.In order to improve the science of “observation”, on the basis of the research results of the predecessors, this paper, combining public and private collections, discusses some superficial knowledge on the identification of Yuanqinghua:

key points of identification

To identify a piece of blue-and-white porcelain to master the following points:

(1) Viewpoint Form

The shape of the vessel, such as the bottle, can, should be carefully looked at its mouth, neck, shoulder, abdomen, sole, to see if there are the characteristics of the shape of the device, but also to identify the body weight of the device-shaped body, the overall analysis of the shape of the organ.Yuan Dynasty bottles, jars and so on, the general shape of the fetal body is relatively thick, the fetal quality is hard.

(2) Look at the glaze color

Yuan blue-and-white porcelain glaze in the micro-brilliant blue, bright, but there are also blue-and-white or partial blue and white porcelain.In the middle and early Yuan Dynasty (Yanyou period), blue-and-white glaze of blue-and-white porcelain, such as blue-and-white glaze, touch the glazed surface like glutinous rice sense, sometimes the glaze color shows a matte wood color, a recent blue-blue gray, a distant yellow-brown, see the blue-and-white glaze on the thin white dots, A few of the body glaze can be seen fine skin layer, oblique light to see through the embryo glaze slightly irregular lines of the glaze lines, from the year of the white glaze, pivot glaze and egg white glaze of the blue-and-white porcelain, the color of the embryo is mostly white, micro-flash blue, for the white glaze containing green, The appearance of a transparent glass texture.

(3) Look at the blue and white flowers

Yuan blue-and-white porcelain hair color instability, blue-and-white color faint, green material is divided into two: a strong green color is green and bright, thick place has black rust, commonly known as” black fault “, strong touch when the green-flower glaze is uneven feeling, This is the import of the use of “clay green” materials unique to the color effect;The other is home-made materials, home-made blue and white hair color blue and gray, some color blue and blue or blue and blue hair color in the flash gray.Yanyou period blue and white hair color of the peony lines deep in the fetal bones are cloud blocks, as lurking in the fetal bones, showing a three-dimensional sense of flash.Blue and white flowers float and glaze close, scattered blue and white flowers are explosive shape, on the surface of blue and white glaze there are thick black silk and small points, blue and white decoration close to glaze, micro concave shape, which is also the basic point to identify Jingdezhen Yuan blue and white porcelain.

(4) Look at the patterns and decorations

The decoration of the blue-and-white porcelain in Yuan Dynasty can be divided into two types.The first kind is the import material painting decoration, has the composition full density, the level rich, the painting neat characteristic.”If the pattern of the large market is composed of three to five layers of dense patterns, and the patterns of the bottles and jars are composed of three to eight layers of patterns, and the patterns of the patterns are of the coordination of the guests and the coordination of the guests, and the complexity of the features of the patterns are abundant and varied, with characters and stories, twining flowers, fish algae, lotus pond, double phoenix flowers,” The flower pattern has the characteristics of large flowers and large leaves, among which the leaves of the twined lotus are painted as gourd, the edges of the peony are painted as white beads, the auxiliary varieties of lotus have many spacing, and the frame is decorated with blue flowers.Another kind of blue-and-white painting with domestic materials, the pattern has the features of smooth and unrestrained, the composition of the pattern is relatively simple, the painting is relatively rough, with a variety of flower patterns for many see.

(5) Look at the inner wall

Blue and white porcelain bottle, pot wall more than non-glazing, the inner wall is sand tire, the body is generally made by the use of segmented adhesive, so the belly and the bottom of the device often have obvious tire joint marks.Mui bottle and shoulder joint more than repair the fetus, so have rough feeling.The inner wall of the tire is mostly raised about 1 ~ 2 mm of different fetal scar, thickness and size irregularity, hand touch has a mellow and delicate texture.The inner wall of the bottle is light yellow, and the inner wall of the bottle is clear. The upper part of the abdomen is treated without repair. The lower part of the abdomen is covered with spiral marks. The inner wall of the bottle is clear.Strong light oblique look inside the thin sand eyes out of the star, shine out, also known as yin-yang light point.

(6) Foot inspection

In Yuan Dynasty, blue-and-white porcelain bottle, the bottom of the tank is more concave foot-shaped, foot-wide thick, a small number of foot-inclined slant shape, digging foot has shallow and deep, mostly shallow foot.The circle of the bowl-plate is more inclined to the outside, but both the cutter and the circle have a more regular and irregular feeling.Bottle, can such as some foot bottom sand tire apparent tie sense, but also some fetal quality slightly loose sense, small sand eyes and black paste hemp point clearly visible, some of the foot surface micro protuberance show chicken heart-shaped.Bottle, pot foot more than spiral marks, showing flint red and ochre red, some of the ring bottom and small small stone on the bottom of the foot is clearly visible, stick thin size block not a black glaze marks, and there is natural explosion.

(7) Color and Bubble

It is also very important to develop the color of the blue and white flower. The outer circle of the jar and the bottle are usually thick with water green, and there is also a blue color of duck’s egg. The glaze surface of the body is usually blue, light blue, or yellow brown.The blue-and-white porcelain bottles and pots of the early Yuan Dynasty showed obvious color, which showed different colors of glaze with the change of air dryness, humidity, temperature and season.The blue-and-white glaze of early Yuan Dynasty (Yanhu period), such as vase and pot, sometimes appeared weak sweating phenomenon on the glaze, generally for hot weather season, and the blue-white glaze and the blue-and-white glaze of early Yuan Dynasty are mostly without air bubbles.The blue-and-white porcelain, white glaze and egg-white glaze will have bubbles, but there will be size and size of two kinds of bubbles, many small bubbles, Yuan blue-and-white porcelain glaze surface appears dry and transparent.

To observe the fifteenth law

The Yuanqing flower, taking the “Zhengzheng” as the model, also includes” Yanyou type “and some blue-and-white porcelain with simple patterns and low sales levels.In order to improve the science of “observation”, on the basis of the research results of the predecessors, this paper, combining public and private collections, discusses some superficial knowledge on the identification of Yuanqinghua:

1. Big flowers and large leaves, leaves full, but flowers do not fill the color, and the external drawing of a more obvious blank line.Mountain stone, sea water, characters, animal patterns, and so on, also similar, decorative white.

2. Twisted-branch lotus leaves, “most of which are gourd-shaped, or have one to five valves” (Sun Yingzhou).

3, deformable lotus-leaf edge decoration, some for a group, some painting two groups, constitute the corresponding up-down, cover lotus-leaf decorative.In addition to the disk, the lotus petals on other types are arranged in the form of monomer, and there is a gap between the lotus petals, which is not connected with each other.In Hongwu period of Ming Dynasty, the lotus-leaf fringes of bottles, pots, plates and bowls were all of the same type except for the jars and brackets, and the painting was carried through the Ming and Qing dynasties.

4, Banana leaf lines, most of them separate, leaves and leaves with space between, a small number of parallel type or leaf and leaf overlapping shape.At the beginning of the Ming Dynasty, there were many overlapping forms, and occasionally there were separate forms.After Xuande, banana leaf lines almost no separate, all of them overlap together.In addition, the main veins of the Yuan Dynasty banana leaves are all expressed by thick lines; after Ming Dynasty, the main veins of the banana leaves are white and hollow, and the thick lines of the main veins of the Yuan Dynasty banana leaves are visually distinct and striking.

5. Ruyi cloud head pattern (also known as” cloud head pattern “,” cloud shoulder pattern “,” vertical cloud pattern “).The tip of the cloud head intersects the two cloud feet, pointing back and forth.That is, Ruyi moire two cloud feet between the pointed, and the head of the pointed cloud, the opposite direction, with few exceptions.And the head of Hongwu, Ruyi cloud and the pointed point of the foot, are in the same direction, there is no exception, and follow to forever.The two pointed points of Ruyi’s cloud head have both the same direction and the opposite direction.

6. Ribbed edges.It is composed of separate monosyllables, some of which are square, some of which are deformed and some of which are subtractive.In Hongwu period of Ming Dynasty, the rims were arranged in a positive-negative form.Ming Yongle to two-party-oriented, but also a ring-style back-grain decoration.After Xuande, except a few edge decoration is still a positive-negative two-sided arrangement, most of the rims edge show a whole circle of a circular type, and continue to the end of the Qing Dynasty.

7. Dragon lines.The Yuan Dynasty blue-and-white porcelain, painted a lot of dragons.The dragon is slender, with a thin neck, thin legs, thin claws, and a pointed tail (occasionally a large flame-shaped tail), and a light body.The head is small, long antlers, mouth opening, tongue spitting, the lower palate of the dragon has whiskers, the upper jaw generally does not need, but, up to 11 years, the dragon upper jaw of the standard instrument has double whiskers, and this kind of belt double whiskers phenomenon, in the Yuanqing pieces of other dragon pattern is very rare.There are two types of dragon body scales, meshed thin scales (see figure), white scales are rare, the latter is more delicate dragon dorsal fin, abdominal usually without transverse striations.Chest and back, often decorated with flame-like ribbon.The elbows have long hairs of three to four or a pinch.Dragon claw to three claw, four claw for the majority, five claw is very rare.

8. The jade jug spring vase in the yuqing flower vertical piece and the halberd, in which part of the mouth is often painted with a curly grass or cloud-head edge decoration.After the Ming Dynasty, this kind of inner edge decoration phenomenon still existed on the jade jug spring vase in the Hongwu Dynasty, and disappeared after the Hongwu period.

9, Yuan Dynasty decorative use of flat painting, “Some is in the thick brush on the edge of the light color” (Sun Yingzhou), a small device for a dot, this is the so-called “a pen” painting method.From the beginning of Ming-cheng, “two-pen” technology is long, the line and fill color are respectively completed.”The Ming Dynasty blue-and-white more than fill color or sketch. This technique on the different, can also be divided into Yuan, Ming blue-and-white porcelain,” (Sun Yingzhou).

10. The Yuan Dynasty porcelain tyre, compared with the late Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty porcelain tyre, has a feeling of hardness and softness.”Fetal quality is not as refined as Ming and Qing porcelain, so there are more sand holes, brush marks and iron spots at the bottom of the sand, and in the bottom of the foot, mouth edge and the shrinkage of the glaze of the tire show flint red” (Sun Yingzhou).

In addition to holding jug, jade jug spring bottle, the bottom of the objects generally exposed.Spicy bottom often stick to glaze spots, this is the style of the times.”To the cup, the bottom of the bowl more than the inside of the glazes, the individual in the inside of the high foot hanging half-loaded glaze” (Sun Yingzhou).The mouth of the big pot is usually glazed, the mouth of the small pot is exposed, the plum bottle is originally covered with a lid, the lid does not apply glaze, which is also a characteristic, some imitations are covered with glazes.

12. Most of the canisters have large mouth and small feet, which are different from those of Ming and Qing Dynasties.Bowl, dish, cup’s circle foot is smaller, foot wall is wider, thicker, give a person a kind of head and feet light feeling.Some objects can be seen at the bottom of the obvious spiral marks, some of the phenomenon of sand.Bowl, dish, cup circle the bottom of the foot common convex milk, commonly known as” navel “, for one of the characteristics of Yuan porcelain.

13, The body of large pieces of the body is generally thick, small pieces of the body are very thin, most of the body is thin in later Ming Dynasty.The imitation is not, small parts also appear very thick.

(14) In addition to some standing pieces with higher exposed tyres, the small jars and jars of Yuan Dynasty are often found on the proximal foot (shin).A mark, usually three, left by a craftsman holding or brushing the glaze.This phenomenon lasted until the middle of the Ming Dynasty.

15, into the earth things, in the body of the tire mark (similar to bamboo wire brush marks), often appear soil erosion marks (the inner wall of the yuan organ is mostly hanging glaze, glaze is the thinnest, so bamboo wire brush marks are vulnerable to soil erosion).It is worth paying attention to whether the soil is natural and the distribution is reasonable.

The last thing to say is that, whether in the cellar or in the world, the flower will eventually solidify some of the imprints of time: buried in the ground, its glaze thin, irresistible to dye with earth, soil spots; secret in the cellar, glaze will also because of the age of the old, showing the texture of the old, Baoguang contains.And the world’s products, due to the vicissitudes of life and years of touching the cause, glaze is more moist, precious light overflow; or because of the use of the glaze will inevitably have a slight erosion or collision, as well as support points and the force of the parts, because of wear scratches across, fine, And a lot of old gas attached.

official kilns and civilian kilns

The official kilns and the folk kilns in the blue-and-white porcelain of Yuan Dynasty can only be distinguished from the decoration.The reason is that the Yuan Dynasty Yanyou year began to clear “double-angle five-claw dragon pattern” and “Kirin, Luanfeng, White Rabbit, Ganoderma lucidum,” and other officials, rich can not use.As a result, all the blue-and-white utensils with forbidden patterns are also official kilns produced by the people’s kilns, but there must be a considerable part of the original blue-and-white porcelain that does not paint these patterns.And the three-claw, four-claw dragon pattern in the Yuan Qing Hua and the production of the relatively coarse objects are basically officials, household used in the kiln products.