Blue and white porcelain belongs to underglaze color, it needs to be in the high temperature above 1300 degrees before it can be fired successfully.It can be traced back to the Tang Dynasty, unearthed from the whole and debris, there was a little colored blue-and-white porcelain.During the Song and Jin Dynasties, the blue and white flowers only appeared in the colored porcelain as the auxiliary decoration of lines and so on.The true blue-and-white porcelain should have matured in the middle of the Yuan Dynasty.Yuanqing flowers are mainly produced in Jingdezhen, Yuxi, Jianshui and some minority areas in the south.Among them, Jingdezhen has the largest output and the best quality. Yuan Dynasty blue-and-white porcelain is rich in various shapes, to plum bottles, jade jug spring bottles, jars, plates, bowls and so on.The general type is larger. Yuan blue-and-white porcelain has thick, thin body, large body is usually thicker, heavier.The use of Jingdezhen side of Ma Cang Village porcelain soil, that is, Ma Cang soil, because the soil contains more iron, so fired porcelain often black-and-brown markings, the base of the body and the internal tire often iron nodules, of course, some are clean.
The production of Yuanqing porcelain has the following characteristics:
(1) Fetal foot characteristics:
1. Large bodies are thick, cut up and down, and there are tyre marks on the outside, mud strips on the bottom of the body, especially on the bottom of the body. Some have mud bands or traces of useful hand pressing. 2. There is no glaze on the sand bottom or there is clay sand on it. Some jade jug spring bottles are glaze bottom. 3, circle the foot outside or flat bottom, chipping the tire is not enough gauge distance, bottom has centripetal spin chipping mark and leave papillae and the glaze spot of different sizes. 4. Most feet have flint red, but some have no flint red. 5. Scratch marks left by small objects outside the foot when glazing is applied. 6, the overall shape of the device is neat, partially flat, leaving vacuoles or fetal scars. 7. A few shin chipping is too thin to bear the weight of the object, resulting in collapse or skew. 8. Cut the tyres at random, and leave a variety of depth and depth of the spiral lines, more than glazing, only to brush the water or thin glaze painted a mess. 9. Some of the foetuses of late-stage Yuan-Qing-hua were thin, with sand grains and thin glaze. 10. There are many defects such as cracks in the kiln, especially in the plastic of the tire soil.Quite a few big bottom bulges. (2) The glaze features of the Yuanqing porcelain: 1. Blue-green glaze, the glaze layer is thick, because the glaze contains more iron, the glaze color is green. 2. Light green glaze, thin glaze, with imported blue and white, most of the blue and white porcelain is this kind of glaze, glaze of thick often orange pattern. 3, Egg white glaze, more with home-made mouth blue and white, glaze thick and thin. 4. Grey and white glaze, and the blue and white flowers, due to the severe aging of the glass, formed in the glaze layer of more “glass aging atherosclerotic spots” so that the glaze gray white, faint decorative. 5. Gray-black glaze, because the sintering temperature is not high, the late Yuanqing porcelain has a few such glaze.Some of the grayish-black glaze is in the lower part of the porcelain, that is, local gray-black. 6. In the late Yuan Dynasty, some blue-and-white porcelain had very thin glaze, some places could not cover up the fetus, and the exposed place was orange-red. (3) Color characteristics of blue and white flowers: 1. Deep, dark, dark soda, dark, with ulcers on the underside of the glaze, iron spots, and tinted tints. 2, The rich color of the clay green, the color is most beautiful, the color of the thick also have tin spots, this kind of Yuanqing porcelain is rare, belongs to the rare. 3. This kind of porcelain is more common because of its pale color and green clay and iron-free spots. 4. Imported and domestic mixed blue-and-white materials are suitable for drawing patterns of various subjects, which are beautiful and generous. 5. Domestic blue and white, pale gray. 6. Yuanqing, most of them are grayish-white, black and rough.
(4) The decorative features of the Yuan blue and white porcelain: The Yuan blue and white flower decorative simple and complex, simple on a dragon, even only a few points, dense decorative as many as nine to eleven layers.General porcelain mouth along the drawing of grass or back lines.Neck painted banana leaf pattern, leaves left black stem (late yuan ming junior middle school leaves white).The shoulder is painted with eight-treasure or chamomile lines, flat chrysanthemum petals and stamens only two layers (the Ming Dynasty for the round chrysanthemum, there are three layers).The abdomen of the body is the theme of the decoration, there are dragon, phoenix, figure, peony, river pond mandarin duck, fish and algae, and so on.Dragon pattern has three claw dragon, four claw dragon.There are two kinds of dragon-scale painting, one is like fish-scale, the other uses lines to make a diagonal square.There are also two kinds of dragon tail, snake tail and flame tail.Early dragon mouth has lower whiskers, late upper and lower whiskers.The phoenix beak of the phoenix is the early parrot beak, like the cormorant beak in the late stage.The shank of the organ was painted with the lotus flower pattern, and the flowers appeared in the lotus flower pattern in the late Yuan Dynasty.
The characteristics of the imitation of Yuan-Qing-hua: 1, The body of the body is regular, local smooth, thick and thin consistent, can kind of device shape is good, plum bottle shoulder is too wide and no slant shoulder, the device shape is not successful. 2, Foot body is too crisp such as grinding stone, non-iron nodule slag, most of the non-flint red. 3. Thin glaze, tight bubble, close bubble size.The glaze surface has no shrinkage glaze spot, no vacuole, no brown spot and no tread mark. 4. Seaweed-like mud, dark, opaque, imitated home-made blue and white flowers do not hair ash, none of the successful imitation blue and white flowers. 5. The painter imitates the original. 6, There is no mud on the body, even if there is mud with 5% diluted hydrofluoric acid wash off. 7, Glazed metal film is used by the machine, like bean full period, size, there are clear boundaries, touch a thickness, no clam light.Some of the apparatus with potassium permanganate immersion, dark color, there is a weak yellow halo. The summary of Yuan Qing Hua:
1. Yuan-Qing-hua is usually unearthed, some of the unearthed porcelain has metal film.Membrane metal like slug after climbing the bright film, some also mixed with mud color, color density and light place there is no obvious boundary line, in the shape of gradient, touch with the hand is also flat (no physical, can magnify see ghost millet jar auction disc).Other metal coatings, such as iodine, are mixed with mud and have a strong clam light. 2, Genuine Yuanqing porcelain glaze transparent, bubble size, some large and medium-sized have small bubbles, the formation of saliva glaze.Part of the blue-and-white porcelain glaze bubble is more or less into the soil, called the death bubble. 3. There are vitreous spots on the glaze of some Yuan-Qing porcelain, which look like cataracts or atheromatous spots under a magnifying glass. 4. The poor preservation of porcelain glaze has dense deglazing spots, and the opening along the corner of the chamfer has peeling of the glaze, but the edges are uneven, and higher than the glaze, which is due to the bad bonding of the glaze, the long body of the body is expanded by moisture, resulting in the weathering of the body of the glaze falling off.Counterfeit is to use machine to grind, see to know. 5. Most of the exposed tire and glaze have flint red and clay, clay and flint red mixed into one color, can not be distinguished, both can not be washed away, is one of the important features of the genuine. 6. In general, there is a clear difference between imitations and genuine products, and there is also a clear difference between the famous imitated Yuanhua porcelain sold by the National Museum and the authentic ones.
The yuanqing flower in iran’s national museum has returned to china for exhibitions, so clear pictures are circulating online.The main significance of these pictures is that they can let Tibetan friends see the color characteristics of Su Ma Li Qing, can see the black spots on the map, faint and beads-like agglomerate point.The repeated mastering of these characteristics is helpful to recognize the hair color characteristics of the Yuanqing flower and to realize the truth and beauty of Su-Ma-Li-qing.
In the blue-and-white porcelain, there are a kind of soft, soft, soft, loose, surface feeling, not fine, more impurities, more air gap, soil white, there are flint glaze at the junction of some flint red, some do not have flint red, the bottom first dug not deep round flat-bottomed pit, Scratch a knife inside and outside the foot circle. The work is rough and not smooth.Faces vary, but they differ greatly.
the museum is full of blue and white flowers with flint red
At the bottom of the “Yuan Qing Hua Zhanzhi Peony Cave”, which is collected by the Palace Museum, there is a faint flint red
China-made blue and white materials, Yang Zongbao Mu Guiying Mu Ke Zhai into a plum bottle bottom, there are obvious flint red