Knowledge of Ming Dynasty “blue and white porcelain” characteristics of learning!
In the blue-and-white porcelain, Jingdezhen blue-and-white porcelain is the best producing area. When it comes to the development of blue-and-white porcelain, the technology of Ming blue-and-white porcelain has become more and more skilled. There are many modern blue-and-white porcelain works that imitate Ming blue-and-white porcelain. I have seen a copy of Ming-blue-and-white porcelain in the World Expo commemorative gifts.
The Ming and Qing dynasties were the period when blue-and-white porcelain reached its peak and went into decline.Ming Yongle and Xuande period is a peak in the development of blue-and-white porcelain, well-known for its exquisite production;Generally speaking, this period of official kiln equipment production rigorous, exquisite;The kiln apparatus is random, free and easy, the picture is freehand.Starting from the late Ming Dynasty, the blue-and-white painting gradually absorbed some elements of Chinese painting techniques.
1. The blue and white porcelain of early Ming Dynasty (1368-1402 Hongwu Dynasty) has large and small plates, bowls, plum bottles, jade pot spring bottles, etc.The use of green materials to domestic materials, there is no exclusion of a small amount of imported materials.Blue and blue hair some light blue, some pan-gray.Some of the former have halos.The pattern decoration layout still has the Yuan Dynasty multi-layer decoration wind, the subject matter also does not change, but many details have changed: For example, the banana leaf in the stem left white;Petals with white edge than the Yuan Dynasty more clear;Peony leaves” cutting “more deep, not as fat as the Yuan Dynasty;The chrysanthemum is painted as” flat chrysanthemum “, and the flower core is shown in checkered pattern.Dragon figure is still slender body, but in addition to three, four claw outside, has appeared five claw, claw shape like wind wheel, momentum is not as fierce as Yuan dragon vigorous.The second-order cloud was changed from the third-order cloud in Yuan Dynasty.Lianban pattern painted more Buddha Babao (Yuan Dynasty painted more Taoist miscellaneous treasures).
The bowl, the small dish draws the cloud air pattern more, only draws on the object outer wall the upper half.The object base is more flat cutting, the sand bottom does not have the glaze to see the kiln red.Without the annual payment, there are very few objects with the money.
2. The blue-and-white porcelain of Yongle and Xuande (1403-1435) shows a high level of craftsmanship.This period uses the green material, mainly to the Su mud green, sees” the rust spot mark “.There are also some domestic green materials.But even domestic materials, hair color is also quite good.There are dishes, bowls, pots, cans, cups and so on.Especially, there appeared some non-Chinese culture instruments such as hat-pot, ribbon-pot and flower-pot, which reflected the cultural exchange and integration with the foreign countries and nationalities in this period.The pattern adorns many kinds of tangled branch or fold branch flower fruit, dragon and phoenix, sea water, sea monster, swim fish and so on.Fetal quality is finer and denser than before.Enamel is fat and moist, see orange peel grain more often.
Compared with the utensils of the two dynasties, Yongle’s instrument type is thinner, beautiful, blue and white hair color is more rich, rust mark is heavier, the pattern is more sparse, the description is more delicate, the bottom glaze is more white, the utensil is more than no money, only see “Yongle year” four-character seal book.Xuande utensil body is thicker, the pattern is more compact, the bottom glaze is a little green, with more, there are four words or six words of the year, and “Xuande cloth whole body” said.Generally speaking, the number of Xuande blue and white flowers is large, variety is many, influence is wide, therefore have “blue and white first push Xuande” theory.
3. The three dynasties of orthodoxy, Jingtai and Tianshun (1436-1464) led to the economic recession due to political instability and natural and man-made disasters.And from the beginning of orthodoxy many times ordered the “ban on official-like porcelain”, so the number of porcelain in this period is small, known as the history of ceramics” blank period. “Generally speaking, this period is mainly a bottle, can, bowl, cup, disk and other categories.Some of the green materials used are still “Su-qing”.Blue and white hair color some of the rich, and Xuande similar to the instrument, some of the elegant, and the generator is closer.The glaze is grayish.The fetal body is heavier.Foot repair is not delicate, there is a sense of thriftiness;Common shallow wide flat sand bottom, some have the phenomenon of clayey sand, some see flint red.
Formal when the bottle, pot mouth is straight-necked shape, and Xuande the same;The upper, narrower and lower widths, which resemble trapezoids, are similar to the formation.The body of the jar and the jar are full shoulder, round abdomen, lower harvest, feet slightly out;The body of the plum vase is longer than that of Xuande.The figure, flower, dragon and phoenix, peacock and so on.The background of the character is painted with a large cloud-like pattern.The bottle, the pot edge decoration likes to draw the sea water grain or the banana leaf grain, its banana leaf middle stem leaves the white, the leaf surface is wider, resembles the small tree general.What is orthodox is the blessing of the word;Jingtai began to learn from the heart of the device to the bottom of the device, in addition to the word, there are “peaceful year,” “peaceful”, “Daming year,” and so on;Tianshun has annals, Sanskrit and so on.
4. Chenghua (1465-1487), Hongzhi (1488-1505) and Zhengde (1506-1521) were in the middle of Ming Dynasty.Chenghua and Hongzhi before the medium-term use of equal green, pale color.The late Hongzhi and Zhengde hair color gray-blue.But this period also has the individual article hair color is rich and bright, has the iron rust spot.
Chenghua more light trace blue and white.Decoration layout of the early sparse, late dense, multi-painted three fruits, three friends, nine autumn, kaoshi, baby play, dragon wear flowers, and so on.Flowers and leaves open like palms;Leaves multi-toothed edge, flowers and leaves are no yin-yang positive and negative;The seaweed floats like a kelp;The rock is like a key without concave-convex feeling;Edge decoration is simple, such as bowl, dish, cup and so on, circle the foot only with chord decoration;Dragon for the dragon, nose long elephant trunk;Cross pestle, Arabic and other Islamic content of the decoration is common.The fetal quality is fine and white, the glaze pole is fine and moist has the jade texture, but is slightly green.The utility model has a pot, a plum bottle, a wash, a saucer, a saucer, a cup, a bowl, etc. The furnace is a three-breast-foot cylindrical or drum-shaped furnace.In addition to the “day” word tank, there are “Daming Chenghua year” six-character list, double-line;Charts are mainly Fangsheng, silver ingots and so on.
The early and middle stages of the instrument are roughly the same as the formation, and even more delicate and soft than the formation.The later period is close to that of Zhengde.The flower leaf pattern is fine and dense, Sanskrit pattern increases, the dragon grain is slender and soft, the character is free and easy.It has six characters and four characters of regular script.
Zhengde still use domestic materials, the early use of equal blue, gray blue hair color.The later stage begins to be used.Some faint away.Its utensils of the type, fetal quality, enamel and Hongzhi close, dense bubble.Deep abdomen bowl, belt seat apparatus and so on popular.In the later stage, the large organ is more common.The common decoration has the phoenix to wear the flower, the fish algae, the lion embroideries the ball, the garden infant play, the tree stone railing, the lotus torus eight treasure and so on, the painting is more Hongzhi thick.When the bottom of the bowl is broken, the bottom of the bowl appears in the heart of the chicken.More see kiln bottom red, clay sand, jump knife marks and other phenomena.There are four-character and six-character script, each with the word “made”.
5. In the three dynasties of Jiajing (1522-1566), Longqing (1567-1572) and Wanli (1573-1620) in late Ming Dynasty, the time of Jiajing was the longest, so the color of the objects in this dynasty was not the same.But this period is unique is the use of recycled green materials.In addition to the traditional decoration is still popular, taoist color of the decoration increased a large number, such as the cloud crane, eight immortals, gossip, taoist eight treasures.The character of the flower group is a unique decoration.In addition, there are baby play, kaoshi, fish algae, and so on.The head and forehead of the baby play are prominent.Tire and glaze are small size and large size.There are many big tools.Octagonal, quadrangular, hexagonal, round under the way of gourd bottle and other special-shaped devices are common.The chao zhu box has a unique shape for this purpose.The “system” and “construction” are both used, with the word “system” in the majority.The book “Jinlu Datian” is used as a sacrificial vessel.There are also Dongshu Hall, Dongluo Hall, and other Tang funds.
Due to the short time of the Longqing Dynasty, there were fewer objects, large tools and old-fashioned instruments.Green material with a return of green, stable color, pure, blue pan-purple (unlike Jiajing as strong purple).The decoration was similar to the Jiajing Dynasty.As a result of small parts mainly, the tire, glaze is more delicate.More hexagonal, octagonal and so on modelling.There are two kinds of official kiln utensils: “Daming Longqing New Year” and “Longqing New Year”.There are four-character money of “Longqing Year-Made” or “System” for the kiln.There are ten thousand well-known languages, such as Fushou Kangning, eulogies, and so on.
Wanli early use of Hui-qing, the middle and late use of stone blue and Zhejiang materials.A lot of light trace blue and white.In addition to the traditional decoration, but also popular brocade ground open-light decoration;The decorative layout is dense, the theme is unclear;In addition, the word Fu Lushou for the more decorative also see.Bottle more see hollowed-out, sleeve live ring and other technology.In addition to the traditional type, the new appearance of wall bottle.Fetal quality is coarser, the glaze is white in spread blue.There are many “Daming Wanli-built”, there are also “Daming Wanli-year”, “Wanli-built”;Many false trust money, there are Xuande, Chenghua, Jiajing.Generally speaking, the technological level is backward.
6. During the end of the Ming Dynasty (1620-1672) and the period of Chongzhen (1628-1644), because of political turmoil, the industry of ceramics was in a state of desolation.Apocalypse 19 years later the court did not order the creation of official kilns, so there are very few tools, “tomorrow to open the year” mainly, but also “Apocalypse the year”.In the kiln, the number of pictures, the name of the Tang Dynasty, the number of auspicious words, and the number of hymns increased, such as jade and fine tools, Wan Fuyou is the same;There were Yongle, Xuande, Chenghua, Tianshun, Zhengde, Jiajing and so on, among which the only one who put up Tianshun was Apocalypse.The traditional decoration is still the main decorative pattern, but the taoist content of the decorative pattern is less than ten thousand calendar time, the meaning of the rough rate.This period’s decoration is more sparse, the life breath is heavier.The characteristics of the times include thick body, loose quality, irregular shape, stick sand on the bottom of the device, collapse bottom, jumping knife mark and so on.
Chongzhen has no official instrument.In addition, there are bowls, cups, bottles, flower bowls and so on.The green material has the stone green, the Zhejiang material and so on.The hair color coarse person is more faint scattered, the essence is stable.In addition to the traditional decorative patterns, gaoxitu is especially common.The baby plays the picture child head big foot small proportion dissonance.The landscape figure picture (Gaoshi Tu) Mid-Autumn Festival grass, parenthesis cloud, small sun and so on for the typical characteristics.Fetal quality is sparse.Glazed white in brilliant green, some hair ash.
Generally speaking, the bright blue and white flower craft is quite perfect, already had the capacity of the scale production, existing many fine goods survive in the world.