History of blue-and-white porcelain.
When did blue-and-white porcelain come into being? The opinions vary from one to another.Let’s start with the facts.In the forties of this century, people found a book “to 11 years,” the year inscription of the Yuan Dynasty blue-and-white porcelain bottles.Since then, the study of China’s ancient porcelain people at home and abroad, according to this porcelain shape, tire, glaze, color and decorative features, or unearthed with this porcelain and decorative style similar to the blue-and-white porcelain, identified as the Yuan Dynasty blue-and-white.After this bottle with a year’s worth of years was made public, the study of ancient ceramics at home and abroad was the basis of the founding of the Yuan Dynasty.But these blue-and-white porcelain are beautifully decorated, colorful and magnificent, both decorative and technological aspects have high attainments.Jingdezhen blue-and-white porcelain in the Yuan Dynasty has generally appeared, and the style of fixed tend to mature, so some people think that such a mature blue-and-white porcelain, can not be suddenly appeared, it must have experienced a rudimentary stage and gradually reached such a level.Therefore, in recent years, some people, according to the feeling of Yuan Dynasty works, spread blue and white porcelain throughout the Song Dynasty, led to the rapid development of Jingdezhen porcelain, which was presumed to have good texture at that time. Jingdezhen Song Kiln with clear blue and blue transparent glaze.
After liberation, especially after the Cultural Revolution, great achievements were made in the examination of cultural relics in China.A large number of archaeological excavations provide scientific basis for us to find out the appearance of the early blue and white flowers.In recent years, when excavating the Yuan Dadu site, the Institute of Archaeology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Jingdezhen Ceramics Museum have all unearthed blue-and-white porcelain with definite stratigraphic relationship.Such as Jingdezhen Ceramics Museum in the trial excavation of the site of the ancient porcelain kiln in Hutian, found that there are blue-and-black glaze painted on the bottom of a blue-and-blue bowl, the shadow of blue-and-blue glaze on the bottom plus brown spot on the black-colored tiger pillow and other relics, to study the origin of Jingdezhen porcelain under the glaze painting and the budding of blue-and-white porcelain ware, Some physical information was provided.As the early blue-and-white porcelain found so far was produced in Jingdezhen in the Yuan Dynasty, and the blue-and-white porcelain unearthed at the ruins of Hutian ancient porcelain kilns in Jingdezhen is basically the same as the blue-and-white porcelain unearthed at home and abroad in this period, so we can say, Blue and white porcelain appears in the world.At the latest, it was made for potters in China during the Yuan Dynasty (from the 1970s to the 1960s).
Flower porcelain has a very high value of appreciation and collection, has always been loved by people all over the world, blue-and-white porcelain has a high historical value, originated from the Tang Dynasty.Although the Song Dynasty blue-and-white porcelain production, but still belongs to the primary stage, the development is slow, handed-down artifacts are few.Yuan Dynasty blue-and-white porcelain tends to mature, especially Jiangxi Jingdezhen blue-and-white porcelain is the most exquisite, there are a certain number of blue-and-white porcelain handed down to the world, become the world’s major museums today’s treasures and various auction on the hot goods.
The development of the blue-and-white porcelain in the Yuan Dynasty has been relatively mature, blue-and-white materials were then divided into import and domestic two, the early use of color materials from overseas, known as” Su Ma Li Qing “or” Su Bo Ni Qing “, referred to as” Su Qing.The body of Yuan Dynasty blue-and-white porcelain is generally thick, colorful, the composition is dense, using multi-layer decoration, the pattern to dragon and phoenix, fish algae, mandarin duck, lotus, tangled flowers, landscape, character stories.The content is rich, the pen method is free, vivid and vivid; The picture layer is rich, the composition is plump, the adornment is strong.Many artefacts, such as eight treasures, lotus, seahorse and big cloud head, are obviously influenced by the art of Lamaism.Yuan Qing Hua beautiful shape, simple and dignified.There are large and magnificent utensils, such as large pots, large plates, large bowls, etc., as well as fine and dexterous small utensils, such as a thin body of high-foot bowl, high-foot cup, bowl, plate, and so on.Yuan blue and white lines strong, flat painting combined with hook, crack, dot, dyeing, showing the same artistic effect with ink painting, showing the Yuan Dynasty craftsman’s superb painting ability.
The Ming Dynasty is the peak period of blue and white porcelain development, whether Jingdezhen official kiln, or the local folk kilns, have created a lot of fine works handed down from generation to generation.The blue-and-white porcelain of this period has been regarded as a model of China’s blue-and-white porcelain, which has been traced back to later generations.Especially Yongle, Xuande and Chenghua, Jiajing and Wanli years of the official kiln fired blue-and-white porcelain, with its fine embryo glaze, rich green color, various shapes, rich decoration and famous in the world.During the period of Chenghua, the blue-and-white porcelain used a new kind of green material called “equal blue”, also known as” Potang green “, which was produced in Ruizhou, Jiangxi Province.”Equal green” hair color stability, color light elegant, soft, give people a kind of looming, ethereal feeling.Chenghua blue-and-white porcelain, light color and elegant, rich and smooth glaze, with jade texture; fine and pure fetal quality, white glaze Yingrun baby play.From Jiajing to Wanli, the color used to burn blue-and-white porcelain is a kind of color called “Hui-qing”.The so-called “Hui Qing”, also known as” Hui Qing “, and” Su Qing “from the Arab region.And the blue-and-white material of Wanli period is produced in Zhejiang, also known as” Zhejiang material. ”
The three emperors of Qing Dynasty, Kangxi, Yongzheng and Qianlong paid close attention to the production technology of porcelain, the enamel of embryo and the decoration of picture.People’s kiln blue flowers in the decorative aspect, appears more lively, the form is diverse, is full of the life breath.There are many historical themes and drama stories, such as the three friends of the year-old, Mi Fei worship stone, “Western Chamber”, “Romance of the Three Kingdoms,” and so on.In the porcelain billet painting, a color can show a variety of layers, and the Chinese painting “ink in five colors”, there is” materials in five colors” said.Ornamental kiln green flowers, the size of objects to moderate, the effect of the picture to pay attention to charm, style changes pay attention to rhythm.People’s kiln blue and white flowers are not bound by one style, skillful and vigorous writing, natural and casual painting style, with a strong folk style.
identification of ancient blue and white porcelain from fetus and glaze
Fetal bones, or fetal bones.The porcelain billet becomes a “tire” after being sintered at high temperature.The main components of ceramic tire are silicon oxide, alumina and a small amount of potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron and other elements.White ceramic tyre is the base of firing blue-and-white porcelain, which is usually made of porcelain stone and kaolin and fired at a high temperature above 1300 ℃.Glaze is a vitreous coating attached to the surface of a porcelain tyre.Glaze has similar physical and chemical properties to glass, which can protect and decorate porcelain tyre.The main component of glaze and porcelain tire is basically the same, but potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium and other flux content is high, make glaze juice easy to melt at high temperature, fill the pore of porcelain tire surface, appear bright and flat, as if to the porcelain put on a neat, beautiful coat.Due to the differences in the composition of the tire and glaze used for firing blue-and-white porcelain in various periods, and the differences in the techniques of repairing, digging and glazing, it is helpful to distinguish the age and authenticity of blue-and-white porcelain through the observation and analysis of the tire, glaze and making process.Cheng Xiaozhong Ceramics Specialist of Nanjing Museum