Identifying knowledge: important marks on the inner surface of the inner surface of the embryo of the primary blue-and-white porcelain

Yuan blue-and-white porcelain in the processing, the fetal surface will leave obvious marks.These marks are distinct from each other due to different processing techniques.Compared with the modern manipulation, the Yuan Dynasty more is the use of hand-drawn blank method, other such as printing blank method, billet (repair embryo) method is also used.
The marks on the inner surface of the fetus and the lines formed by hand-drawn blank are the most obvious.These patterns are formed in manual rotary machining.There are many kinds of striations:
One is the wide spiral mark.The width of the mark is about one finger, and the center of the spiral mark is slightly concave.This wide-channel spiral mark does not necessarily cover the entire fetal surface, such as large cans, middle, lower part of the more obvious, to the upper part often become not obvious.
The second is the fingerprint spiral mark, that is, in the wide spiral mark there is close to the silk as thick as hair, this is attached to the inner surface of the very shallow fine mark spiral mark, its thickness and depth due to the artist’s fingerprint thickness and different, or slightly thick or slightly thin.It is different from the pinstriped image produced in modern machine rotation processing, which is as thick as noodles.
Third, the wide-road spiral mark is obvious, the fingerprint spiral mark is not obvious, or is very shallow.
Fourth, there is only a wide spiral trace, no fingerprint spiral trace.
The different state of producing the above-mentioned marks is mainly related to the artist’s finger physiological morphology and different operating directions (the horizontal and vertical direction of the fingers in the blank drawing will affect the formation of fingerprint marks: yes or no, obvious or not).These marks are the ancient hand-processed state of primary blue-and-white porcelain.
Hand-drawn billet method is the most difficult method to master, not only to take care of the fetus, but also to consider the appearance of the fetus.This method is used to pull into several sections of the final joint into a body, the joint of the extrusion of the mud marks of the large pot-like objects are generally flat (wipe, not very flat, the inside diameter of the big pot mouth surface is also smooth), part of the small mouth plum bottles or small and medium-sized objects only extruded mud marks are not dressed in a slightly convex state or smooth have.All kinds of marks are kept in the tire, as far as possible to deal with the surface of the tire flat, beautiful, but also consider into the kiln when not deformation.Since it is very difficult to make a neat object by this method, so that modern imitation encountered a lot of difficulties, the general will not dare to risk the easy use of this method to imitate (including the machine drawing method also dare not easily use).
In addition to hand-drawn blank also use the method of printing blank processing, using molds to make tire shape.The mould is divided into upper and lower parts.In advance, the mud ball is pressed into the die to form, and a few sections of the blank are obtained after the mold is removed, and the sections of the blank and the film are bonded to each other to form a plum vase or a large jar.The inner stria of this method is in a flat state.At this time there is also the adoption of billet (trimming) method to flatten the inner surface of the tire repair, repair can be extremely smooth.Therefore, with the printing method of the object and drawing method is different, there is no wide-road spiral mark and fingerprint marks.This printing method is much easier for making some big plum bottles.For example, in recent years found in the bolingdi big plum bottle, often use the printing method, its inner surface is very flat, no manual marks.Although there is still a dispute about Boling’s article, this does not negate the application of this technique in Yuan Dynasty.
Modern imitation objects mainly use the printing method, no matter big cans, medium and large plum bottles are afraid to use the manual drawing method, in order to avoid the risk of material losses, especially in the use of fine kaolin formula careful, Otherwise, the blow of failure will create a lot of pressure on those who are not financially well-off.Therefore, most of the imitators are only on the basis of the printed blank, the use of the back-up method in the tire with a finger gently pulled out a strip of wide-road spiral marks imitation of the blank, which is obviously different from the ancient drawing marks, easy to see through.
Of course, in the pure printing technology, the ancient and modern methods are roughly the same, will increase in this kind of method to make the identification of objects difficult, but in other aspects such as pigments, enamel, terrazzo, painting style, flint red and other aspects of the difference can be divided.
It will be very helpful for us to recognize the true device after we know the drawing mark.We must be careful about the in-tire levelling device made of printed blank.As for the use of printing and then in which the addition of false marks of modern imitation objects, as long as we know, generally will not be out of sight.

For example, below:

Inner Mongolia unearthed blue-and-white porcelain sheet of the hand-drawn billet wide spiral mark, because it is just in the tank in the rolling glaze layer is covered by the glaze layer, but can see clearly, Bao Tou Tibetan friend Jinxin provided (also visible its Ma Cang soil tyre characteristics, namely, the section has a narrow bubble, for the pull-billet law caused)

The Positive Situation of the Blue-and-White Ceramic Pieces from the Excavated Yuan Dynasty

Baotou unearthed blue-and-white porcelain sheet surface hand-drawn billet wide path spiral mark (this piece is just in the pot of the application of the glaze is covered by the glaze layer, but can see)

The blue-and-white porcelain sheet of the unearthed Yuan Dynasty is in a positive state. (It is also seen that there are black spots of beads in the Su-Boni blue pigment, i. e., dot-like agglomerate spots)

Look at the surface of excavated blue-and-white porcelain sheet in different positions

One of the hand-drawn wide-road spiral marks is found in the large pot of peony grain of Yuan Qing Hua tangled branches unearthed in Yanjialiang, Baotou Museum.

In the large pot of peony grain of Yuan-Qing-hua tangled branches unearthed in Yanjialiang, Baotou Museum, it is hidden by glaze layer.There are fingerprints in the wide spiral trace.

In the large pot of peony grain of Yuan-qing-hua tangled branches unearthed in Yanjialiang, Baotou Museum, it is occluded by the attached glaze layer.

Solid map of large pot with peony pattern in Yuan Qing Hua of Shanxi Museum

Above, it is obvious that there is a circle around the wide road of hand-drawn billet in the middle and lower part of the large pot.

Folk blue and blue flowers, peony grain, large scale, hand-drawn blank, wide path, spiral mark.

In the large pot of Tibetan Yuan blue-and-white porcelain, there are still fingerprint marks in silk after magnification

The condition of magnification of the wide spiral mark and fingerprint mark in the small pot of folk storage (the fingerprint mark is invisible)

The state of wide-channel spiral mark in the small pot of Tibetan Yuan blue-and-white porcelain

A large tin cover with a grain of grain on the bottom, as on a noodle plate.