The Blue and White Porcelain of the People’s Kiln in Jingdezhen in Ming Dynasty and Its Artistic Achievement (2) The Artistic Achievement of the Porcelain of the People’s Kiln
China’s ancient ceramics production has the official kiln and the civilian kiln, the official kiln specialized production imperial goods and tribute goods, the civilian kiln production supplies.From the history of ceramic development, the five generations of Wuyue State Qian’s regime, has ordered Yue kiln to burn the common people are not allowed to use imperial products, this porcelain was called “secret color” porcelain.But the strict distinction between the official kilns and the folk kilns began in the Song Dynasty.(Yin Liuzhai said porcelain: “‘Day:” Since the Song Dynasty, there are official kiln, civilian kiln, official kiln by the supervision of the production, in order to enter the top, to reward also. Folk kiln also known as passenger and goods, common to the people. “To the Yuan Dynasty for the kiln industry once implemented” life is Jia, no life is stop “system.
By the Ming Dynasty, with the recovery and development of the economy, Jingdezhen porcelain industry quickly flourished and became the national porcelain industry center.At that time, a large number of kiln, porcelain fired the number of increasing year by year.Under the circumstances that the imperial kiln factory can’t complete the duty of tribute, according to the regulation of “having orders for tribute, no orders for stopping”, a system of “government-made civilian burning” has been set up, in which craftsmen and high-quality raw materials with high-tech in the kiln are chosen to burn with the official kiln, that is, the official kiln orders products to the civilian kiln, Or the official kiln out of the sample, produced by the kiln.Therefore, the task of the kiln is more difficult and complex, not like the simple production of the kiln.The imperial articles produced by the official kilns are very delicate and are often recorded and handed down as the representative works of the time.There are few monographs about the artistic achievements of folk kiln porcelain.In fact, compared with the porcelain of the official kiln and the folk kiln, the porcelain of the folk kiln also had many new improvements and creations in the porcelain-making technique in the middle and late Ming Dynasty.In recent years, we have improved our understanding of the blue-and-white porcelain of the Ming Dynasty’s folk kilns by sorting out the blue-and-white porcelain of the Palace Museum, and this paper tries to discuss the art achievements of the blue-and-white porcelain of the Ming Dynasty’s people’s kilns in Jingdezhen.
Source: Palace Museum, author: Yeppelin
The Blue-and-white Porcelain of the People’s Kiln in Jingdezhen in Ming Dynasty and Its Artistic Achievements (1) General Survey of the Porcelain of the People’s Kiln
II. Artistic Achievements
The blue-and-white porcelain of the Ming Dynasty not only provided a large number of rough decorative daily necessities for the people’s life, but also created some new varieties, both in decorative subjects and painting porcelain skills have new achievements and contributions.Some of these products were also welcomed by the international market at that time and were sold abroad in large quantities, which promoted trade and cultural exchanges between China and foreign countries.The following several aspects talk about the artistic achievement of the blue-and-white porcelain ware in the folk kilns of Jingdezhen in Ming Dynasty.
First of all, the decorative subject matter is extremely broad.People’s kiln porcelain decoration can be free to create, has broken the traditional official kiln pattern of the shackles, all the natural and real life can give people the beauty of all the scene, things, painters are fully to display, such as the figure-oriented fairy, woman, high, urchin, and so on;The themes of production and living scenes include grazing, farming, fishing, children flying kites, and the Lantern Festival.Natural scenery is landscape, trees, flowers, birds and insects;On the animal side, there are lions, seahorses, tigers, dragons, phoenixes, unicorns, cranes, ducks, geese, geese, cats, rabbits and so on.People’s kiln porcelain painting content is extremely rich, is the official kiln porcelain incomparable.The style of folk porcelain painting is varied, including freehand painting, drawing, single line drawing and so on.The freehand brushwork is natural, simple and vivid.
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In his book The Blue and White Porcelain of the Ming Dynasty, Mr. Wang Zhimin describes the beauty of the artistic conception of the folk kilns as a silent poem.Its landscape figure painting often a few pen on the drawing of distant mountains and waters and the dynamic characters, fresh light far, it is thought-provoking.Some objects also add verse in the blank space of the picture.The Palace Museum has two blue-and-white plates with long-pole fishing paintings in the Wanli period. There are lines of poems such as” Talking about the time of forgetting “,” Laughing over the time “,” Fishing over Weishui with a rod, ‘Xingzhou Eight Hundred Autumn “and so on. The brush is simple and condensed, which shows a strong breath of life. In the porcelain of the folk kiln, there are still pure poems without painting, such as the Qing Hua Poems of Jiajing “Songbai Grass Hall” and the Eight Words Poems of Qinghua Grass Books for external use. The wild shop returns to the mountain road, the dangerous bridge belt border village. Smoke and grass, long streams of rain at night. Who lives next? The sun’s hand covers the door. Winter books live in fragrant clouds. “This natural and simple pure verse toilet is a unique work in the porcelain of the folk kilns.
Another characteristic of folk kiln freehand porcelain painting is the imagination and exaggeration of the flowers and plants and animals in real life.Some pictures only painted a branch of Hanmei;There are some vigorous flying horses running in the clouds, both for the edge decoration, but also for the theme of decoration;Also painted is a slender-legged heron in the lotus or flying, or head long singing, or low head pecking fish, the image lively and interesting.These pictures are rich in a strong sense of life, it and the Song Dynasty Cizhou kiln painting style of the same work (Figure 2, Figure 3).
The pattern pattern of folk kiln porcelain painting is more colorful.The tangled branch flower is one kind of common decoration pattern, has the Fan lotus, the peony, the morning glory, the month season, the chrysanthemum, the ganoderma lucidum and so on various tangled branch flower.The method of organization is usually two-sided continuous branches, some also in twining flowers with Sanskrit characters or miscellaneous treasures.Wanli red colored blue and white flowers tangled branch lotus pattern vase (picture plate 4) is a fine art in the blue and white porcelain of the folk kilns. The pattern is a multi-layer two-side continuous twining pattern, which is a new play on the painting porcelain technique.The body of the bottle was spread out like a beautiful tapestry.The animal pattern I painted by porcelain shows various animal’s different shape features fluently with the concise powerful line, such as leaping lion, eagle, flying horse, tame deer, rabbit and landscape, flowers, insect butterfly and so on.The pattern of the baby play is very lively and interesting with the line of the skilled and vigorous depiction of the children’s innocent and lovely posture.These folk masterpieces have a strong artistic appeal.
The light drawing decoration is a special decoration method in the blue-and-white porcelain of the folk kiln.Ornamental general body uses single line to hook out the outline of the decoration, without any flat painting, the figure is like paper-cut or light tracing, with a strong folk style.The blue-and-white picture of a lotus flower with its thin lines, like a lotus paper-cut or a line-drawing, is painted in a white heart with a lotus flower in full bloom.This painting of a lot of artifacts, plates, furnaces, bottles, and so on, are small vessels, is a unique Wanli period works.
China’s ancient porcelain craftsmen pay much attention to the decoration of objects, especially the characteristics of the combination of objects for decoration.General type can be divided into mouth, neck, shoulder, abdomen, foot or flow, handle, cover and other parts, according to different parts of different decorative patterns, which is the traditional decoration method.The excellent works of the blue-and-white porcelain in the Ming Dynasty also used this traditional decoration method.Such as Wanli blue and white bird long neck bottle (plate 5), bottle diameter 6 cm, foot diameter 11.5 cm, height 26.1 cm.Lip mouth, long neck, round abdomen, circle foot, the bottom full of glaze.This bottle has regular shape and reasonable decorative layout. The craftsman uses the traditional decoration method of the official kiln to reply, banana leaf and lotus leaf.Four different two-side continuous patterns of Ganoderma lucidum, decorated in the mouth, shoulder, shin, foot four parts.Longer neck, painted with four continuous patterns of tangled bamboos;The abdomen is wide on all sides, and two birds are painted on each side.The center of the vase is decorated with the flower and bird patterns of the abdomen, and the other parts are set against the center.
The artistic achievement of the blue-and-white porcelain in the folk kilns is also shown in the blue-and-white color treatment is to innovate on the basis of traditional techniques.The theme decoration section first leaves a blank, then the dark blue and white flat-painted pattern, and then in the blank area with a single line description of the method of the theme decoration, so as to highlight the theme of the picture, or highlight the white egret, or highlight the white rabbit, Others highlight naked babies (plate 5), and the images are lively and interesting.Wanli blue and white rabbit pattern plate (plate 5) is also drawn with this method.The color of the plate is green and bright, at the bottom of the plate is” Wanli Xin Qiu Nian “, the six characters of green flower figure (picture plate 5), for Wanli 29 years of civilian kiln products. Wanli “rich and beautiful” style blue and white phoenix pattern can, jar body around, each prominent a group of blue and white phoenix pattern, this arrangement decoration rich in certain decorative beauty. At that time, there were also many of these kinds of porcelain, such as a very beautiful deer plate (Fig.4) in the Adabile Temple in Iran, with six groups of blue-and-white flowers on the outer wall of the plate; each group was a long-legged white deer, a fawn or a deer looking down for food, or staring at the distance, lively and lovely