History of the most complete knowledge of blue and white porcelain[recommended collection]
Blue and white porcelain, also known as white blue and white porcelain, often referred to as blue and white, is one of the mainstream varieties of Chinese porcelain, under the glaze color porcelain.Blue and white porcelain is a cobalt ore containing cobalt oxide as raw material, on the ceramic body painted decorative, and then covered with a transparent glaze, high-temperature reduction flame once fired.Cobalt is blue after firing and has the characteristics of strong coloring, bright color, high firing rate and stable color.The Han people have a long history of making porcelain and a wide variety of it.The original blue-and-white porcelain appeared in the Tang and Song dynasties, and the mature blue-and-white porcelain appeared in the Hutian kiln in Jingdezhen in Yuan Dynasty.Qing Hua became the mainstream of porcelain in Ming Dynasty.The period of Qing Kangxi reached its peak.During the Ming and Qing dynasties, the varieties of blue and white, malachite green glaze blue, bean green glaze blue, red green, yellow ground blue and goose glaze blue and white were also created.The blue-and-white porcelain produced in Jingdezhen is the most famous.Historically, porcelain with Muslim-style pattern is called “Hui Qing”, which belongs to the export of porcelain.
The blue-and-white porcelain in Tang Dynasty was at the beginning of blue-and-white porcelain.The specimens can be seen in the 70 ‘s and 80’ s of 20 pieces of blue-and-white porcelain unearthed in Yangzhou;Hong Kong’s Feng Ping Shan Museum collection of a blue and white stripe;a flower bowl in the Boston Museum;An algal jar at the Copenhagen Museum in Denmark;The Nanjing Museum’s collection of a colored plum pattern cover.By studying the tire, glaze and color of the porcelain sheet unearthed in Yangzhou, and analyzing the material and technical conditions of Gong Xian Kiln in Tang Dynasty, it is concluded that the origin of Tang Qinghua is Gong Xian Kiln in Henan Province.In recent years, a small number of blue-and-white porcelain specimens have been unearthed in Gongxian kiln site, which further confirmed that the origin of Tang Qinghua is in Gongxian kiln in Henan Province.
Seen from the blue-and-white porcelain pieces unearthed in Yangzhou, the blue-and-white materials with crystal spots are low manganese, low iron and copper-bearing cobalt, which should be imported from Central and Western Asia.Fetal quality is much coarse loose, show rice gray, sinter degree is poor.The bottom glaze is yellow in white and the glaze is thick.Make-up soil is applied between the glaze of the fetus.The utility model relates to a small piece, which is mainly composed of a compound, a bowl, a can, a cover, etc.In addition to the Danish Copenhagen Museum collection of fish alga patterns tank, the rest are flowers and plants.Among them the flower pattern divides into two kinds again, one kind is typical Chinese traditional flower, take the small flower such as caryophyllum flower, plum blossom to be widely seen;The other is a typical Arab pattern with scattered leaves in a diamond or other geometric figure.From this point of view, combined with the Tang Qinghua unearthed more sites (Yangzhou is an important port in the Tang Dynasty), can prove that the Tang blue-and-white porcelain mainly for export.
Tang Qinghua after the initial period, and did not develop rapidly, but to decline.The only pieces of porcelain that can be seen are the ten or more pieces of porcelain unearthed from two Taki sites.First, in 1957 excavated in Longquan County, Zhejiang Province, Jinsha Taji, a total of 13 pieces of blue and white bowl debris unearthed.The tower has the absolute chronology of the Northern Song Dynasty “Taiping Xingguo 2 years” (977 years);In the other place, in 1970, a piece of scraps from the belly of a blue-and-white bowl was unearthed in the tower of Huanchui Tower in Shaoxing City, Zhejiang Province.The pagoda, which was unearthed in Tataki, proved that the pagoda was built in the first year of Xianchun of the Southern Song Dynasty (1265).
These more than ten pieces of Song Dynasty blue and white porcelain pieces, are bowl pieces.Some of the fetal quality is thicker, some are finer.The embellishment has the chrysanthemum pattern, the circle pattern, the chord pattern, the line pattern and so on.Blue-and-white hair before the more dense, black;The latter is lighter.The darker hair color, should cover transparent glaze too thin reason.Zhejiang province itself is rich in cobalt ore, and these blue-and-white porcelain should be using local cobalt.There is no direct continuation relationship between them and Tang Qing-hua.
The mature blue-and-white porcelain appeared in Jingdezhen in Yuan Dynasty.Because of the binary formula of “porcelain stone + kaolin”, the content of AL2O3 increased, the firing temperature increased, and the deformation rate decreased during roasting.Most of the body of the body is therefore thick, the shape is thick and full.The fetal color is slightly gray, yellow, the fetal quality is loose.The bottom glaze is divided into two kinds of white and egg white, opacification is strong.Its use of blue materials include domestic materials and imported materials two: domestic materials for high manganese low iron-type blue material, bluish gray black;Imported material for low manganese high-iron type green material, green and rich color, rust marks.In part of the artifacts, but also domestic materials and imported materials used.The utility model mainly has the daily utensils, the supplies, the graveyards and so on, especially takes the bamboo knot high foot cup, the bearing apparatus, the graveholder most has the time characteristic.Except the jade pot spring bottom foot swing glaze, other utensils base more sand bottom does not have glaze, sees flint red.
The most characteristic of the motif of Yuanqing flower is that the composition is plump and multi-level.Stroke of a stroke is the main method of writing, smooth and powerful;The sketching and rendering is robust and serene.The subject of the decoration has characters, animals, plants, poetry and so on.The characters are Gaoshi (four love pictures), historical figures, and so on;Animals have dragon and phoenix, Kirin, mandarin duck, fish and so on;Common plants are peony, lotus, orchid, pine bamboo plum, ganoderma lucidum, flowers and leaves, melon and fruit;Poetry is rare.The peony petals painted more white edge;Dragon pattern for small head, thin neck, long body, three or four claw, back ridge, scale pattern for more grid-like, vigorous and fierce.Auxiliary decorative for more than rolling grass, lotus, ancient money, sea water, back lines, cloud, banana leaves, and so on.Lotus-shaped pattern like “braces”, lotus often painted Taoist miscellaneous treasures;Ruyi moire often painted eight strange or broken branches lotus, twining flowers, painted third-order clouds;The stem of banana leaf is solid (filled with green material).The sea water pattern is a combination of coarse lines and fine lines.
Qinghua in Ming and Qing Dynasties
The Ming and Qing dynasties were the period when blue-and-white porcelain reached its peak and went into decline.Ming Yongle and Xuande period is a peak in the development of blue-and-white porcelain, well-known for its exquisite production;Qing Kangxi with “colorful blue-and-white” blue-and-white porcelain to the peak;After Emperor Qianlong of Qing Dynasty, because of the development of Pink-colored porcelain, it gradually declined, although it was in late Qing Dynasty (Guangxu) at one time, finally it could not continue the prosperity of Kangxi Dynasty.Generally speaking, this period of official kiln equipment production rigorous, exquisite;The kiln apparatus is random, free and easy, the picture is freehand.Starting from the late Ming Dynasty, the blue-and-white painting gradually absorbed some elements of Chinese painting techniques.
1, The early Qing Dynasty blue and white apparatus has the size dish, the bowl, the plum vase, the jade pot spring bottle and so on.The use of green materials to domestic materials, there is no exclusion of a small amount of imported materials.Blue and blue hair some light blue, some pan-gray.Some of the former have halos.The pattern decoration layout still has the Yuan Dynasty multi-layer decoration wind, the subject matter also does not change, but many details have changed: For example, the banana leaf in the stem left white;Petals with white edge than the Yuan Dynasty more clear;Peony leaves” cutting “more deep, not as fat as the Yuan Dynasty;The chrysanthemum is painted as” flat chrysanthemum “, and the flower core is shown in checkered pattern.Dragon figure is still slender body, but in addition to three, four claw outside, has appeared five claw, claw shape like wind wheel, momentum is not as fierce as Yuan dragon vigorous.The second-order cloud was changed from the third-order cloud in Yuan Dynasty.Lianban pattern painted more Buddha Babao (Yuan Dynasty painted more Taoist miscellaneous treasures).The bowl, the small dish draws the cloud air pattern more, only draws on the object outer wall the upper half.The object base is more flat cutting, the sand bottom does not have the glaze to see the kiln red.Without the annual payment, there are very few objects with the money.
2. The blue-and-white porcelain of Yongle and Xuande shows a high level of craftsmanship.This period uses the green material, mainly to the Su mud green, sees” the rust spot mark “.There are also some domestic green materials.But even domestic materials, hair color is also quite good.There are dishes, bowls, pots, cans, cups and so on.Especially, there appeared some non-Chinese culture instruments such as hat-pot, ribbon-pot and flower-pot, which reflected the cultural exchange and integration with the foreign countries and nationalities in this period.The pattern adorns many kinds of tangled branch or fold branch flower fruit, dragon and phoenix, sea water, sea monster, swim fish and so on.Fetal quality is finer and denser than before.Enamel is fat and moist, see orange peel grain more often.Compared with the utensils of the two dynasties, Yongle’s instrument type is thinner, beautiful, blue and white hair color is more rich, rust mark is heavier, the pattern is more sparse, the description is more delicate, the bottom glaze is more white, the utensil is more than no money, only see “Yongle year” four-character seal book.Xuande utensil body is thicker, the pattern is more compact, the bottom glaze is a little green, with more, there are four words or six words of the year, and “Xuande cloth whole body” said.Generally speaking, the number of Xuande blue and white flowers is large, variety is many, influence is wide, therefore have “blue and white first push Xuande” theory.
3. The reign of Shunzhi in the early Qing Dynasty was not long, but it was a crucial period of time, which laid a solid foundation for the peak of the later Kangxi period.Shunzhi blue and white utensils mainly have the following characteristics: less type, mainly furnace, wine, bottles, large and small plates, bowls, cans and so on.Generally speaking, the body of the body is rough, and the body of the large organ such as the furnace, the large plate and the ware is heavy and heavy, while the body of the small organ such as the small plate and the bowl is light and light.But there are individual objects fine, dense, visible glutinous rice-like.Glaze base more white in the brilliant green, some also show a little gray, thin glaze.The green flower material should be Zhejiang material and gravel green two kinds of use, resulting in hair color some green, some blue.Among them, the green color of the furnace hair green, other objects more gray blue hair color.The pattern adorns the common flower bird, the landscape, the cave stone, the autumn grass, the river boat, the monster, the lucky beast, the banana, the cloud air and so on.
4. The time span of Kangxi Dynasty is long, the type of utensils is rich and the craft level is superb.This period uses Zhejiang material and pearl material, blue and white hair color earlier than gray, medium-term after the blue and blue, bright bright and bright.In the early period of painting method, single-line flat coating was the main method, and the momentum was rough.After the medium-term outline, renderings, shawl and other use, fine painting, and with the green flower order (that is, the so-called “blue and white colorful”) and highly respected.The decorative theme is varied, there are landscape characters, dragon and phoenix flowers and birds, fish, insects, animals, poetry, bogu, and so on, the most characteristic of the times is the ice plum, ploughing and weaving map, Dao-ma, Shuanghe peony and so on.The white edge of the pattern is more obvious than the other faces.The fetus is dense, white and glutinous rice cake-like.Glaze hard, and close to the fetal union, see orange peel or brown eyes, early white in brilliant green, bright white after the middle.In addition to the household utensils, a large number of ornamental porcelain, the typical device has covered pot, phoenix tail, vase, like the legs, pen, and so on.The base of the utensil also has the extremely strong time characteristic: The chopper many two-story platform bottom;The pen is full of jade.In the early stage, most of them are the pointed “Carassius carpio” bottom, which is obliquely cut on both sides, and the bottom is basically round “loach back” after the middle stage.The market is more than two-lap bottom, this bottom from the end of the Ming Dynasty and Shunzhi appeared, popular to the Kangxi mid-term.There are many kinds of money, such as the early use of dry money, the annual use of regular script, after the mid-term various hall money, drawing money, the popularity of the deposit, and popular to Yongzheng.The imitation money, the pseudo-trust money also sees more, especially in the imitation Jiajing money.
5. During the Yongzheng and Qianlong periods, the blue-and-white instruments were more closely imitated by Ming Yongle and Xuande’s Su Ma Leqing than imported materials.The second is the imitation of the light trace blue and white.In addition to the Ming artifacts from the tire, glaze, green material and other aspects of the distinction, the type is also an important point of distinction: the tire interface is up and down, clear is front and back.
Yongzheng when fine technology, tire repair is exquisite, kiln is rough, there are swirling tire marks.During the Qianlong period, especially in the later period, the handicraft began to go downhill. In addition to inheriting the varieties of the former dynasty, there were also innovative varieties of Qinghua Linglong porcelain.The adornment content is also more varied than that of Yongzheng, but in general, it is mainly symbolized by auspicious patterns.
In addition to the New Year, Yongzheng when more see miscellaneous treasure money, four flowers, animal shape, and so on, the name of the less than Kangxi.Qianlong time Tang more than Yongzheng, more seal-style, there are four flowers.
After Jiaqing, the blue and white porcelain gradually went downhill.The early pieces in Jiaqing were basically the same as those in Qianlong, but the craftsmanship was rough, the shape was heavy and clumsy, the glaze was thin and gray and green.Daoguang, Xianfeng, the same period of similar objects: blue-and-white hair floating, rough fetal quality, thin glaze, the combination of embryo glaze is not tight, decorative mainly auspicious patterns.