Kangxi Blue-and-White Porcelain of “Jingying Pure Complete”
During the reign of Kangxi in the Qing Dynasty, political harmony and national prosperity flourished, and blue-and-white porcelain quickly rose after a brief depression from the late Ming Dynasty to the early Qing Dynasty. The quality of the products was fine, the quantity was large and the marketing range was wide, which reached the peak of the porcelain industry in the Qing Dynasty, and became after Yongxuan and Qinghua in the Ming Dynasty. Another golden age of blue-and-white porcelain production in our country.Chen Liu of the Qing Dynasty once praised: “The porcelain of the world, to our Huawei the most, my China the porcelain, to Kangxi the most.”
Emperor Kangxi’s 61 years in power, attached great importance to the production of official kiln porcelain, on the one hand, in the 19 years of Kangxi (1680) in Jingdezhen official restoration of imperial kiln factory, and tax relief, porcelain manufacturing industry has been rapidly developed, especially “the implementation of the system of” official firing “, promoted the implementation of official kiln, The competition and development of the kiln make the products pay more attention to quality and fineness.The second is the selection of kiln officials, the supervision of kiln affairs, the construction of palace imperial utensils, Kangxi 19 years (1680) and 44 years (1705), has been sent to the interior of the Guang Chu Shi Lang Xu Tingbi, the chief minister Li Yanxi, the Ministry of Works Yu Hengsi Lang Zang should be selected, Jiangxi governor Lang Ting extremely governor Jingdezhen official kiln production.And set a precedent to call the official kiln after the official name, such as” Zang kiln “and” Lang kiln “.Officials, the people, prosperous and prosperous, porcelain industry showed a prosperous scene.
In his 51st year (1712), the French missionary, Ant Recoller, sent a letter to the French church in Jingdezhen, describing the prosperity of the ceramics industry in Jingdezhen. “There were only 300 kilns in Jingdezhen, but there are now 3,000 kilns in Jingdezhen.” At night, it was like a fire city guarded by fire, and like a large furnace with many chimneys. “The description was exaggerated, but it partly reflected the unprecedented prosperity of the porcelain industry at the time.
Kangxi blue-and-white porcelain bead glaze is fine, blue-and-white hair color is bright, the modelling is diverse, the pattern is beautiful, can divide into early, middle, late three periods:
In the early period of Kangxi, the green flowers mainly refer to the products before Kangxi (1662-680), the shape and painting style are still left behind in the late Ming Dynasty, the shape is thick, the base is rough and stick to the kiln sand, the common radial jumping knife marks in the bottom of the utensils, and the shape of the steps appear in the bottom of many large plates and cutters. It is commonly known as” two-story station “.Double circle foot is also popular in this period, especially in the large market, the inner circle is shorter than the outer circle, there is no glaze between the two circles.There is fire red on the exposed tire, objects often painted on the mouth of a layer of paste glaze.Glaze surface fat appears blue and white, have shrink glaze and small brown eyes.The early green material is mainly made of domestic pebble blue, which shows deep color and dark gray color, and is similar to the characteristics of Shunzhi blue and white flowers.The main decorative figures, flowers, birds, insects, fish, scenery, the early blue and white book emperor year of the less, the general title of the hall, or painting autumn leaves, incense, and other patterns.
Qinghua in the middle period of Kangxi refers to the product between 19 years and 40 years (1681-1701) of Kangxi, which is the peak work of Qing Dynasty.The glaze surface is mostly pink white and pulp white, powder white glaze surface hardness is high, paste white glaze surface slightly loose.The base foot dews the place of the fetus to be polished smooth and meticulous, show loach back-like, rare flint red.
The green flower uses the fine Zhejiang material and Yunnan “pearl bright material”, the green flower color material extraction is pure, appears the color fresh blue green, bright bright bright, bright not vulgar, may divide into “the head is thick, is thick, two thick, is weak, the shadow is light” five color order.The painting techniques draw on the Chinese ink-and-wash Chinese ink-and-paper painting “divided water” and the perspective of Western painting techniques, making the picture full of three-dimensional sense.The official kiln green flower many offices” the big Qing Kangxi year “six words two line regular script, the font is vigorous and powerful.Some objects, such as calligraphy, calligraphy, calligraphy, calligraphy, calligraphy, calligraphy, etc.
The late Kangxi Qinghua refers to the products after Kangxi 40 years (1701 to the end of Kangxi Dynasty).Fetal body is lighter than medium, firm and hard, the degree of porcelainization is better, base foot cutting is neat.Blue and white color from the medium green to light gray-dark transition, some seem to appear unstable color, fainting phenomenon, similar to the early Yongzheng products.The surface glaze color is exactly the same as that of Yongzheng, showing blue and white glaze.There are six lines and three lines of six characters of “Kangxi-year”, four lines of “Kangxi-year”, and so on. Outside the words, there are blue and white circles, two circles of green and green flowers, and a large number of years, names and zhai money.The figures include autumn leaves, plum blossom, dragon, crane, flower shape, object shape and so on.
Kangxi blue-and-white porcelain modelling Dunzhong plain, simple and generous, there is a strong, robust beauty of masculinity, artistic characteristics are distinct.In addition to the traditional plates, bowls, dishes, cups, boxes, bottles, pots, pots, dignitaries, and other utensils, there are also crowns, lampshade, Ruyi, snuff bottles, wall and other various daily life porcelain, as well as sacrificial vessels and export porcelain.
Hebei Museum has more Qingkang Xi blue-and-white porcelain, now choose its fine, to the reader.
Qingkang Xi Qinghua characters four sheep pattern cup, high 4.9, diameter 7.1 cm.The open body, deep abdomen, round feet, thin body, white and delicate fetal quality, glazed jade, white glaze, painted figure and four sheep picture.In the picture, two scholars in elegant clothes seem to be talking, calm, comfortable.Around a dead wood, dead wood on the ivy luxuriant, take “dead wood spring” meaning.Beside the dead wood, four gentle and lovely lambs foraged and frolicked in the grass, implying good luck.This instrument green flower hair color gorgeous green, the pen method is natural and comfortable, the composition is dense has causes, the artistic conception is peaceful and remote.Foot repair regular, blue and white double circle inside the book “Daqing Kangxi year” six-character two-line script.
Qing Kang Xi female baby play pattern blue and white bowl, high 8.6, diameter 14.8 cm.This bowl, the abdomen wide deep abundant round, the bottom bearing ring foot, the fetal body is even, the fetal quality is white and fine, the glaze is smooth and even, the modelling is upright.The whole body is decorated with blue and white flowers. The lines are simple and clear. The blue and white hair is fresh and elegant.The outer wall mouth and the outer foot are decorated with two strings.The abdominal motif is decorated with the figure of a girl’s baby play, and the woman’s face is beautiful and quiet.Children play and are naive;The whole picture with rocks, bamboo forest, trees as the background, the composition of the layout of the appropriate far and near, dense and so on.The inner wall of the bowl is decorated with bright flowers, and the belly is decorated with peony flowers, which means” rich and rich in succession “.The bottom of the inner wall is decorated with a picture of the landscape characters, in which the mountains are high, the streams are round the shore, the pine forests are green, a hermit walks on the bridge, looks up at the distant mountains, is intoxicated in the mountain color, and depicts the hermit life of the literati.Outside foot bottom book green flower “big bright becomes a new year” six words two lines regular script double blue circle money.
Qing Kang Xi Qinghua HeLu spring pattern incense burner, high 13.7, caliber 23.5, bottom diameter 15.8 cm.This device is closed in the mouth, tummy down, circle foot, fine sand bottom, white color, fine quality of the fetus, glaze even.The outer wall of the wall is decorated next week by the circle of Ruyi cirrus pattern, miscellaneous treasure pattern, censer general body is painted with blue and white pine and crane, deer and crane with spring pattern, with strong blessing, pray for life.Pine is the long-standing, evergreen immortal, is a symbol of longevity and a sense of festival.Crane is a long-lived bird, “God Mirror” records, according to legend, when the Han Dynasty, there was a couple of Mu Dao, in the stone room practice seclusion, after the transformation of the white crane and go.It reflects people’s desire to be young forever and to live a long and healthy life.Deer with the original meaning of the spring six contract spring, six refers to heaven and earth qiankun, “the south of the sea” in: “land contained, between the six, within the four seas”, among which six refers to the world.In the six contracts spring, six harmonics deer, and homophonic crane, so the six contracts for the deer and crane spring, at the same time, deer and crane are all spiritual animals, a bird, a beast, so there is heaven and earth are spiritual meaning.At the same time, deer and crane are long-lived animals, so that the meaning of the same life in heaven and earth, is one of the most popular auspicious patterns.
Qingkang Xi Qinghua “the front red wall Fu” pen tube, caliber 18, abdominal diameter 18, high 15.5 cm.The porcelain pen-holder appeared in Jiajing and Wanli years, and the large-scale production was in the late Ming Dynasty.During the reign of Kangxi in Qing Dynasty, the government was well-connected and the culture was prosperous, which made the production of porcelain pen-holder reach its heyday.This instrument is a cylindrical shape, similar to the bottom of the mouth, jade-like bottom, white glaze, the bottom of the “Wen Zhang Shan Dou” four-character regular script, is the standard style of the pen tube in Kangxi period.Sushi in the Northern Song Dynasty as the whole piece of “the former” as a decorative pattern, written in regular script vertical lines, the text neat, neatly arranged.In July of Renxu’s autumn, the Chinese unique Chinese calligraphy art is fully used on the porcelain pen, which combines calligraphy, seal, poetry and porcelain-making technology. It is a work of many classical arts.
In the Tang and Song dynasties, text as decoration has appeared, the Ming Dynasty is very popular, but generally limited to “Fu”, “Lu”, “Shou” and a few of the words to express auspicious wealth.At the end of Ming and early Qing Dynasty, there appeared a lot of poems, which only served as a foil to the pattern decoration.It is very popular to write the whole poems and poems in Kangxi. Some articles, such as” Teng Wangge Preface “,” Chi Bi Fu “, and other characters’ stories, such as” Romance of the Three Kingdoms”,” Romance of the Western Chamber “and” Water Margin “, are also common subjects.
Qingkangxi phoenix peony grain jar, height 33.8, abdominal diameter 25.6 cm.This instrument has a straight mouth, a large shoulder, and a lower tympanum, which expands to the bottom and outward.The fetal quality is fine and dense, and the enamel is bright and smooth.The mouth is drawn along the bottom of Ruyi cloud head pattern a week.The neck draws the geometry lace grain belt, the abdomen wears the peony pattern for the double phoenix, the euphemism many posture, the vivid graceful.In particular, the peony flower is a double-horn shape, commonly known as” double-band peony “, this painting method is unique to the Kangxi Dynasty, full of distinctive characteristics of the times.Geometric lace embellishment at bottom.The upper and lower embellishment echo, increases the thick and steady feeling.The pen is natural, free and easy, the line is vigorous and powerful, exudes the rich artistic breath.The base foot inside draws the blue and white double circle.Having typical characteristics of the times.The tangled peony symbolizes Jiqing, because of its continuous structure, so it has the meaning of “living and living”.In ancient legend, the phoenix is the king of birds;Peony is the king of flowers, meaning wealth.Folk often the phoenix, peony as the theme of the design, called “phoenix wear peony”, “phoenix happy peony” and “peony lead phoenix” and so on, as auspicious, beautiful, rich symbol.
Qing Kang Xi green flower entwined branch lotus pattern can, height 13.3, abdominal diameter 11.4 cm.Can short neck, shoulder, drum belly, circle foot introverted, shallow cut foot.There is no glaze in the mouth and neck. The original organ should be covered.Shoulder decoration geometric decoration, abdominal theme pattern for the flowers, near the bottom of the lotus-shaped foot decoration deformation.In the Tang and Song Dynasties, a large number of flowers appeared on the arts and crafts, this custom has been affected by the Ming and Qing dynasties, by the influence of foreign culture, some of the Qing Dynasty lotus patterns in the flowers are often accompanied by slender branches, known as tangled lotus patterns.
Qing Kang Xi blue and white open bright flower pot, caliber 27, abdominal diameter 48, height 80 cm.This instrument has straight mouth, short neck, large shoulders, outer foot, straight and straight shape, a week of twining flowers painted on the neck, and the body and cover of the device are illuminated on the pattern of ten thousand characters of brocade, and are divided into three layers, which are staggered, arranged, arranged, painted basket, bogu diagram and broken flower, This is the most common decoration on Kang Xi’s export porcelain. At the upper junction of Kaiguang, there are small Kaiguang and eight auspicious patterns painted inside.Eight auspicious also known as eight treasures, is the eight mascots in Buddhism, respectively: wheels, snails, umbrellas, covers, flowers, cans, fish, intestines, and give different auspicious meaning.The most unique is the cap button, for an anti-porcelain (anti-porcelain is completely non-glaze carving porcelain works) lion crouching above, its shape is lifelike, and the bottle body is very harmonious and rich in variety.It represents the highest level of blue-and-white porcelain in Kangxi kiln.
Since the late Ming Dynasty, Qinghua gradually became the main variety in the export of porcelain, Kangxi reached a peak.In addition to the traditional Chinese landscape, characters, flowers and birds, there are some of the decorative patterns of the Qinghua export porcelain are custom-made according to customer requirements.Usually the production process is very fine, the shape is regular, the color is gorgeous, the painter is exquisite.
Qingkang Xi Eight Immortals figure striated three-legged furnace, high 11.5, caliber 21.8 cm.Furnace broken edge, short neck, flat round abdomen, bottom bearing three feet.The body is thick, the glaze is bright and delicate, the shape is dignified and steady, the green flower is fresh and bright.The neck is decorated with eight auspicious patterns, the abdomen is painted eight immortals, eight immortals in the legend of Taoism, popular in the mid-Ming Dynasty, because of the prosperity of Taoism, and especially Jiajing, Wanli two dynasties for the most part, After the “Eight Immortals” and its instrument as a representative of the” Dark Eight Immortals” has become the traditional decoration of Chinese arts and crafts, according to legend, there are “Eight Immortals cross the sea”, “Eight Immortals Zhu Shou”, “Eight Immortals hold longevity” and other patterns.In the painting, Zhang Guojiu, Lu Dongbin, Han Xiangzi, He Xiangu, Li Tiegou, Zhong Leiguan, Cao Guofu, Lan Cai and other characters vivid image, the characters hand-held apparatus in the mountains and rocks, between the fence, or stand, or sit, elegant, smiling, happy.The sky is a vast expanse of auspicious clouds, meaning long life.The lines are smooth, the layers are clear, and the theme is prominent.Flame of flint can be seen at the base of the fetus.
Qing Kang Xi blue and white figure lines along the bowl, high 7.6, diameter 15.5 cm.Bowl broken edge, deep abdomen, bottom ring foot, body thin and delicate, glaze bright and moist.The inside and outside are decorated with blue flowers, the inner wall is decorated with eight-treasure patterns, and the diamond-shaped brocade lines are interspersed, and the bowl-heart is painted with the fishing pictures of the fishermen.The outer wall is decorated with eight-treasure pattern along the bottom, the abdomen is decorated with figure pattern, the figure’s manner is different, the picture is vivid and vivid, the painting line of the dress pattern is smooth and the composition is dense.A five-petal plum blossom is drawn in a double circle on the base of the foot.This instrument blue and white hair color steady congealed, with thick and weak different blue material description pattern, fresh and bright, so that the porcelain painting decoration has obtained the ink painting general bright, vivid, vivid artistic effect.
Qingkangxi landscape character tattoo bottle, caliber 14, abdominal diameter 23,46 cm high.This bottle, with a straight and straight shape, has a strong masculine beauty.Neck drawing vortex lines and bead lines, string lines, abdominal motif decoration for two walkers in the mountain path between, as if in the appreciation of the exchange, around the woods, running water, surrounded by mountains and rocks, the layout is sparse, the mood is quiet.Green flower color is rich and green, show gemstone blue, thick and light intertwined, gorgeous not vulgarity, show through rich color step the texture of stone, bark, quite have ink painting “ink divide five colors” charm.
Kangxi blue-and-white porcelain is a golden period in the production of blue-and-white porcelain in China.In addition to the official kiln green flowers, not only the proportion of the kiln green flowers, including a large number of fine works.This article is the representative work of Qinghua in Kangxi Kiln.Kangxi Qinghua not only has a neat shape and strong lines, but also has its unique use of water-sharing techniques and colorful decorative patterns. “Water-sharing” is a rendering technique created by drawing lessons from Chinese ink and landscape painting, “Shading Law”, which has already appeared in the late Ming Dynasty. Qingkangxi reached the peak, its method is in the outline of the outline, using different concentrations of water rendering, layered, with a strong sense of three-dimensional and the effect of ink and wash painting, so Kangxi Qinghua has a “multicolored blue and white” reputation.