To understand and understand the Tang Dynasty blue-and-white porcelain, this article must be read
This is one of the Tang Qinghua cans unearthed in 2006, more than 50 Chinese and foreign ceramic experts in Henan Gongyi Huangye Tang Sancai kiln site reached a consensus.In addition to the mass production of Tang Sancai, this kiln site is also well-known in the Tang Dynasty blue-and-white porcelain origin.
Tang Qing Hua Pagoda
Tang Dynasty blue and white porcelain
Tang Blue-and-White Ceramic Tablets unearthed in Yangzhou,1975
The remains of Tang Dynasty porcelain pillows unearthed at the ruins of Tangcheng, Yangzhou, Nanjing Museum,1975
Video of Tang Dynasty Blue-and-white porcelain pieces unearthed in Yangzhou and Blue-and-white porcelain plates on the Black Stone
well-known expertZhang Pusheng believes that the origin of blue-and-white porcelain and cobalt blue, white porcelain, and glaze under the color, and the ancient Chinese cultural aesthetic.
The origin of blue-and-white porcelain and cobalt blue
Since 1950, in Henan, Hunan, Shandong, Shaanxi and other places on many occasions from the Spring and Autumn Period after the Warring States Period in the tombs unearthed various types of artificial glass jewelry.Through the analysis of their chemical composition and microstructure, it is proved that the main colorant with green luster is copper and the main colorant with blue luster is cobalt.Dragonfly eye green glass matrix unearthed in Hougudui, Gushi County, Henan Province at the end of the spring and autumn, with two colors of blue and white glass.Blue glass beads have been unearthed in the tomb of Chu in Changsha, Hunan Province.It is found that the coloring element of blue glass is cobalt, which is the earliest cobalt blue discovered in China.
In addition to the above two exceptions, in the archaeological excavations, there are also the following cobalt-blue-related archaeological utensils unearthed: Hubei unearthed with cobalt-blue decoration pieces of the Yue Wang Jian;In Tongshan County, Jiangsu Province, small jade carvings of the Eastern Han Dynasty were unearthed with cobalt blue colors.A batch of blue glaze pottery was unearthed in the tomb of the Northern Dynasty in Taiyuan, Shanxi Province.Tang Tricolour is a collection of cobalt blue application of the large, the color of the blue in the Tang Tricolour to the use of cobalt blue alone in ceramic painting _ has a direct impact on the origin of the blue and white.In the Tang Dynasty, the blue-colored ware is more precious, and the blue-colored ware is the most valuable.There are two kinds of foetus making materials in Tang Dynasty: ceramic tire and kaolin.The firing temperature of kaolin is 900 ℃, the kaolin is not porcelain, so it is still pottery, and Tang Qinghua is porcelain, firing temperature is above 1100 ℃.
The Origin and White Porcelain of Blue-and-White Porcelain
White porcelain glaze is high temperature transparent glaze, the white degree of the porcelain tyre is very high, so in part of the rough and gray quality of the ceramic tire, must first apply make-up soil, to increase the white degree after firing.By the mid-late Tang Dynasty, many white porcelain kilns had used high-quality blank materials, thus reducing or eliminating the need for make-up earth, and white porcelain fine products had reached the level of thin-glazed, clean and pure.
Professor Li Jiazhi of Shanghai Silicate Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Sciences studied the white porcelain pieces in the kiln sites of Huangye River and Baiye River in Henan Province, and compared them with those of Xingyao and Jingdezhen in Lincheng, Hebei Province. The white porcelain made in Gongyi, Henan during the Sui and Tang dynasties should be one of the earliest fine white porcelain in China.And high-quality white porcelain has a direct influence on the origin of blue-and-white porcelain.
The Origin and Underglaze Color of Blue-and-White Porcelain
The decorative technique of underglaze color is orderly development.In the late Western Jin Dynasty, there were brown dots on celadon, which was widely used in Eastern Jin Dynasty and developed into stripe, block and mottle.This kind of color painting mostly comes from Zhejiang’s celadon kiln system.
In Linan County, Zhejiang Province, Yuegao brown glaze, which was excavated from the tomb of Qiu’s in the mother water of King Qian Liu of Wuyue, is the continuation of Zhejiang painted porcelain in the Six Dynasties.
The color-painted porcelain under brown and green glaze of Changsha kiln in Tang Dynasty is a peak in the history of color-painted porcelain under glaze.In the early stage, colored porcelain was decorated with mottled and striped colors, and in the middle and late stage, it was further developed into underglaze color painting technology.The Tang Dynasty Changsha kiln glaze under the color painting porcelain, with iron or copper as the main colorant, in the porcelain billet direct drawing pattern pattern, the subject matter has the poem, the essay freehand writing, the figure, the construction, the animal and so on, then applies the blue glaze, the firing glaze under the brown color, the green color porcelain.In the Tang Tri-color and Changsha kiln with the same shape of the thick neck holding the pot, this is the style of the Tang Dynasty artifacts.
The Origin of Blue-and-White Porcelain and the Aesthetics of Ancient Chinese Culture
In addition to the factors of productive forces, the times and social background are also important conditions for the development of any material civilization.
The Tang Dynasty was a great empire of prosperity.In ceramic art, the three colors of Tang Dynasty are the best expression of Tang Dynasty’s meteorology.Tri-colored glazes are colorful and romantic, reflecting the interest of Tang people’s life.Fengtou pot, dragon head cup and so on have exotic charm new modelling, show the Tang people to the foreign culture extensive collection of self-confidence and courage, and three-colored pottery figurines is the art record of that era.Developed traffic, prosperous business, for ceramic products prepared the market.The beautiful ware of the prosperous times, which became the mainstream of Chinese porcelain at one time, was praised by foreigners as the blue-and-white flower of “national porcelain”, which originated in the Tang Dynasty and was the product of history and times.
make upThe Conditions of Tang Qinghua
1. The production time must be Tang Dynasty.
2. The firing temperature is around 1300 degrees Celsius.
3. Must be white porcelain.
4. Underglaze cobalt blue.
It is on the basis of these points that the number of discovery of the Qing-hua Tang is very rare, so that its historical value has become particularly important and prominent.The so-called “history without cultural relics witness is pale history, the culture without cultural relics evidence is incomplete culture.” This sentence is used to express the importance of Tang Qinghua in the history and culture of blue and white porcelain.
The Decoration Method of Tang Qinghua
At present, there are three kinds of decorative patterns of Qing-hua in Tang Dynasty:
First, sprinkleA cobalt blue ornament.From the figure below, theseThe cobalt blue color is thrown up.Throw up after the obvious flow phenomenon, like raindrops sprinkled on the window, little, natural flow, very vivid.
It is dot draw pattern adornment.The dots were painted into stars, flowers, and flowers.Geometric figures, such as the look is both no rules, there are rules, natural simplicity.
Third, the actual painting decoration.There are characters, flowers and geometric patterns, but these solid paintings are more simple, unique style.
Above, left:Painted Decorations of Tang Dynasty’s Green Flowers from the Sunken Ship of Blackstone