30 Characteristics of Kangxi Blue-and-White Porcelain (Next)
The last part continues to tell you about the characteristics of Kangxi Qinghua:
16.Casserole:Hold the pot, Ben handle the pot;Also known as” Tibetan herbaceous pot “, religious apparatus, is modeled after the Tibetan silver-shaped pot-shaped burn made.
Teapot, tea-drinking apparatus, made many practical and beautiful style, good at shape transformation, bamboo-shaped, peach-type, beam-type, handle-type, eight treasure-type, “Fu” shape, “Lu” shape, “Shou” shape and so on.
Qing kang xi green flower phoenix head pot (a pair)
The pot body and the kettle flow, the pot handle proportion moderate, the harmonious unity, the dignified generous.The teapot is often painted with matsutake and bogu.Bogu is the combination of various arts and crafts of the pattern.
Qing Kang Xi Qinghua tangled branches peony pattern pot
17.Pencil: one of the stationery, the number of many, more thick wall.Compared with the late Ming and early Qing Dynasty, there are obvious changes, the popular bottom of the mouth similar cylinder shape, the largest number is also the most representative.
Qingkang Xi Qinghua Kaiguang landscape brush holder
There are also swipes-shaped, bamboo-shaped, waist-type, waist-type more appeared in the early stage, some of the mouth sizing white glaze, is not the mainstream variety.
The most common is the jade-like bottom, the bottom of the navel out of the concave slightly, there is glaze, than the outer wall of the glaze to be white, thin, the outside of the navel there are two kinds of glazes and non-glaze, the latter is more.Next is the bottom of the steps, the circle foot and flat-bottomed unglazed tire.There are also three small strip-shaped feet at the bottom.
The bottom of Qing Kang Xi’s Qing Hua figure picture pen-Beijing Forbidden City
The official kiln pen tube many books long poetry, the poem tail often used in the glaze red seal book “Kangxi Chuangu” Fang Zhang.People’s kiln glaze spread green, multi-painted landscape characters story and flower-and-bird map.Individual has annals such as Kangxi 20 years landscape character pen, Kangxi 13 years landscape pen, this kind of kiln pen with annals, in general, the embryo is thick, the bottom does not have glaze, the mouth edge and near the bottom often has dark carved double string or curly grass line, This kind of dark border decoration is very popular in the late Ming and early Qing dynasty blue and white porcelain, such as pen holder, lotus seed jar and barrel bottle.
Qing Kang Xi’s blue-and-white opera beads with dragon patterns
18.Flower pots: flower-raising utensils.The body is huge, the fetal body is hard, steady and thick.Common round, cylindrical, oval, Begonia-shaped, square, rectangular, hexagonal and so on.Stylish shape, simple, well-made, is the late Kangxi Jingdezhen Imperial Kiln Factory dedicated to Kangxi Emperor’s birthday and burning.
Qing Kang Xi, Qing Hua, Fairy group, birthday picture, four big flower pots.
As an imperial flower-raising device, the upper body of the device appears many auspicious symbols of longevity, such as” pine and crane, “” Shoushan Fuhai “,” He Lu Tongchun “, Yunlong, Yunfeng, Yunmang Ganoderma lucidum, eight celestial figures, but also painted the landscape map, a hundred son map, mouth more broken edge, The bottom of the center has a round hole, along the bottom of the blue and white writing, “Daqing Kangxi year” 6-character regular script horizontal.
Qing Kang Xi Qing Hua Fu Shan chart flower pot-Beijing Forbidden City
Qing Kang Xi Qing Hua Fu Shan chart flower pot bottom
19.Disk: Daily use, small and medium-sized, early, middle and late are burned.Some difference is not very big, have high foot dish, flower mouth dish, square dish, fold edge dish, apostrophal dish, chrysanthemum plate and so on.The circle is slightly high, comparatively speaking, the glaze surface of the kiln is green, the fetus is more important than the green flower of the official kiln, and it is generous and thick.
Qing Kang Xi Blue and White Knight’s Rack
The bottom of the plate is flat and full of glaze, rare collapse of the Ming Dynasty.Export-oriented porcelain is different from domestic porcelain, mostly broken edge, shallow wall.Extremely light, very delicate, high quality, blue and white gorgeous, decorative both traditional flower and bird patterns, as well as Western flowers and pavilions, with an exotic atmosphere.
Qing Kang Xi blue and white knight pattern pan bottom
From the literature, most of them are sold to Europe. Many museums in many countries have a large collection of Kangxi blue-and-white porcelain for export.The bottom of the device is often written with the word “jade”.
Qingkangxi green flowerexportBritish shield micrograin plate
20.Bowl: There are high-foot bowl, covered bowl, box bowl, recumbent bowl, open bowl, folding bowl, waist wrist, deep abutment-type bowl, four sets of bowl, small bucket bowl for the Kangxi Dynasty innovative style, in addition to the blue and white, often outside the painting of phoenix bamboo patterns, using the technique of crossing branches, This kind of painting from outside to inside the branch, was first created by the late Yongzheng, Qianlong widely used.
Qing kang xi blue and white three friends picture hat bowl (a pair)
Foot inside write “imperial gift pure one” both sides frame money.Kangxi blue and white bowl pictures are not very dense, decor appropriate.Guanyao is mainly composed of dragon and phoenix. It is common to have cloud bats, clouds, squirrel grapes, peony flowers, eight treasures and gossip patterns.
Qing Kang Xi blue and white flower and bird pattern bowl-Beijing Palace Museum
21.Box class: the upper and lower union is tight, the cover surface is flat, the circle is low, the plane cuts.At the bottom of the box, there are two characters: “Qing”, “Qing Kang Xi” and “Da Qing Kang Xi”.Another round box, four round box, small ink box, bell box, chess box, and so on.
Qing Kang Xi blue and white dragon and phoenix pattern round cover box
22Cup class: There are high full cup, cup, tea cup, chi ear cup, bell cup, bell cup big mouth, deep abdomen, small circle foot, foot height, because of its appearance extremely call bell and named, also known as the back clock cup, is the Kangxi Dynasty rich dynasty style utensil.There are two types of fetuses.Guan kiln tire thin open much, civilian kiln tire thickness many skimming mouth;
Set cup, mostly three sets of small and medium-sized synthesis, the outer wall often painted poetic characters, the number of the late Yong and Qian increased significantly 8,10.After Qianlong, many sets of cups are pastel.
Qing Kang Xi green flower December flower grain cup (12 pieces)-Beijing Palace Museum
The December flower poem sentence cup, is one of the Kangxi Dynasty official kilns blue and white famous products.Belonging to fine objects, Jingdezhen has been burned in batches.In addition to the blue and white, there are a large number of palace products, this flower cup on the production of high technical requirements, difficult to burn.Fetal thin as paper, light and transparent, blue and white elegant, crystal-clear and smooth, has reached the degree to see only glaze and not see the fetus.
Qing Kang Xi green flower December flower grain cup (12 pieces)-Beijing Palace Museum
The ancients used “fear of the wind to go away, but also worried about the sun.” It is appropriate to describe it.The cup is painted on one side to represent the flowers of December, the other side of the book five words or seven words of the poem, the poem is followed by a seal book, “appreciate” the word.December flower cup after the Kangxi Dynasty also has a small amount of cooking, is more powder enamel, sets of not much, rarely see blue and white.
23The patterns of antique bronze ware include: furnace, statuette, wine, wine, cup, bean, etc.Some not only the modelling imitates, the pattern decoration also draws the ancient bronze grain, such as the gluttonous grain, the animal surface grain and so on.
The Qing-hua porcelain of the Ming Dynasty was highly admired in the Kangxi Dynasty. According to the documents, most of them were made during the period from forty-four to fifty-one years when Lang Ting was governor of Jiangxi Province.From the historical point of view, imitating the Ming Dynasty Qing Hua, Xuande Dynasty to the most, and the most successful, not only according to the palace Xuande Qing Hua for the blue edition of careful imitation, some will also be Xuande decorative painting in the style of the artifacts.The purpose is to “borrow the ancients to show off the present”.
Qing Kang Xi green flower glutinous grain shop head ears big
Simulated Xuande Qinghua works, more from Lang kiln, not only the shape, size of the same, decorative, figure is also very realistic, if not carefully observed comparative analysis, it is difficult to distinguish, reached the “and true two”, “than visual declaration into desire for truth” degree.
Qingren Liu Tingji’s” in the park magazine “praise Lang kiln” near Fu Lang kiln, Ziguanzhong public office Xijiang also created. Antique, and the true two, its copy into, Xuanshui, glaze color, orange brown eyes, the words cool, extremely difficult to distinguish. “It shows that Kangxi imitated Xuande Qinghua to achieve high success.
Qing Kang Xi, blue and white flowers, Ruyi ear hold moon bottle
24Kangxi green flower decoration subject matter is extensive, all-encompassing, the pattern layout is ingenious and reasonable, and the shape organically combines together.Especially in the decorative aspect of the kiln, the blue and white flowers have special aesthetic feeling and distinct time character, which can be closely connected with the real life, reflecting the large number of patterns of thought and living customs at that time, the level of painting porcelain craftsmen is by no means lower than that of the official kiln painters, and break through the shackles of the pattern of the official kilns of the past dynasties. Free play of folk popular characteristics of the art style.
Qing Kang Xi blue and white flower and bird pattern jar
And the official kiln blue and white meticulous, excellence, decorative symmetry, balance, neat, theme, eye-catching, prominent, still represents the highest level of painting porcelain technology at that time.
Qing Kangxi, “Daming Jiajing year”, imitation green flower, “sea flying horse” picture cup
25Kangxi Qinghua in painting techniques, but also a lot of reform and innovation, formed its own unique style.The traditional method of painting blue and white patterns in Ming Dynasty was changed, i. e. single-line flat coating. Instead, the technique of “parting water and caving” was adopted and the focus perspective technique of western painting was used for reference.
Qing Kang Xi, Qing Hua, “Red Brush Biography” Picture Hammer Bottle-Beijing Forbidden City
Painting on porcelain billet, a color that can show a variety of shades of light and light.The so-called “split-water crack” is to use the pen tip dipped in different materials on the tire water description, the technical requirements are high, few of three or five, the most can be divided into eight or nine color levels.
Part of Qing Kang Xi Qinghua Landscape Character Covering Canister
The painting of mountains and stones, mostly using the style of the south song dynasty painting court.When carrying pen hook, dye, crack, wipe, point all kinds of painting techniques and use, this all depends on the painter hand and pen to finish, the composition is diversified, emphasizing the lively and interesting picture, wide vision, regardless of the size of the picture, there is a very perfect situation.
Qingkang Xi Qinghua Chibi Fu landscape poetry square hammer bottle part
It can be said that Kangxi Qinghua Chinese painting techniques, through the pattern of the form, ingeniously and vividly painted on the porcelain, so that China’s porcelain decoration has been further promoted.Some pictures combined with carving, marking and hollowed-out stacks and other techniques.At the same time, it also widely draws on the useful experience of other sister art to enrich its own decoration, especially bronze ware, lacquer ware and weaving embroidery.
Part of Qing Kang Xi Qinghua Fushan chart flowerpot
26In terms of materials, the most prominent features are nature and society, reflecting secular life, mainly: plants and flowers, landscape, animals, character stories, fairy tales, auspicious lines and long poems and so on.There are also some woodcut prints from the end of the Ming and early Qing Dynasty, Kangxi Qinghua ever-changing decorative patterns, but also for the subsequent development of Yong, dry blue-and-white porcelain laid a solid foundation.
Qing Kang Xi Qinghua Flower and Bird Covering Canister
27Kangxi blue-and-white porcelain ware, a variety of knowledge, in the Qing Dynasty is the most rich and varied.
The early Qing Hua generally did not write the imperial year, occasionally see the court or imperial garden in the Ramadan, without double circles, such as the “peace hall system”, “Kangxi Xinhai peace hall system” (10 years of Kangxi), “Kangxi non-son peace hall system” (11 years of Kangxi), “Kangxi Guichou Zhonghe Tang System” (Kangxi 12 years) and so on, Zhonghetang is Kangxi Emperor’s residence in the Yuanmingyuan.
Kangxi Qinghua mid-period began to write a large number of imperial year money, are regular script, mainly Qinghua double crime “Daqing Kangxi year” 6 words,3 lines 6 words.The late green flower has 3 lines 6 words, also has two lines 6 words, the latter often does not draw two circles, “Qing” the word “Moon” under the right side of the word is now a horizontal writing, there are a small number of “Qing-year” 4-character regular script.This 4-letter type is also often seen in colored glazes, such as yellow glaze bowls and covered bowls of celadon porcelain.
The general style of Kangxi style is the general color slightly light, the font is clear, thin and long, dignified and neat, elegant and powerful, the Xi character writing method has” three ministers and two pen “said, the second half of the four points have straight point and Shun point two, the former is the majority.The distance between the word and the word is relatively large, up and down is not very compact, lofty, distinctive features of the times.
28.There are “Daming year”, “Yongle year”, “Daming Yongle year”, “Daming Xuande year”, “Chenghua year”, “Daming Chengde year”, “Daming Zhengde year”, “Daming Jiajing year”, “Daming Longqing year”, “Daming Wanli year”, From a quantity point of view, half is to write a copy into the amount, there are 4 words, but also 6 words, more is a regular script, followed by a copy of Xuande money and Jiajing money.
Qing Kang Xi Qinghua characters in the bottom
29.People’s kiln green flowers than the official kiln more complex knowledge, a lot of differences, most do not write the number of the year, this and then forbidden book number of the provisions have a relationship.Often write hall money, double call fast hall money, namely live in “fast”, “hall”, “room”, “Xuan”, still have Ji Yan praise money and spend charge chart money.
Qingkangxi Qinghua Yugou pick up leaves, baby play picture round cover box
Most are written on the base of the foot, drawing a double circle, no double circle line is very rare, a small number is in the bowl heart, common: “Biyun church system”, “Xingyu church system”, “pen flower fasting system”, “world brocade hall system”, “neutralization church system” and so on.
Jiyan’s praise includes: “In Chuan Zhi Le”, “Yongqing Qi Zhen”, “The Treasure of the Wonderful Stone Treasure”, “Shi De Liu Fang Lu”, “Canglang Green Water”, “Wen Zhang Shan Dou”, “Generation article”, “Xinglin Spring Banquet”, “Ball Lin rare play”, “Balls Lin Xuan Zhen” and so on.
Individual objects are only painted in double circles, no words in the circle, some painted leaves, plum blossom, conch, rabbit, Pisces, ganoderma lucidum, knights cup, incense burner, lotus flower and other pattern marks.
Qing Kang Xi Qing Hua Tang Dynasty characters story square bottle
The word “good” or “blessing” is often written in the foot of the plate and bowl. Some depictions include pen, silver ingots, and the meaning of “always as good as you like”, others describe miscellaneous treasures, such as Fang Sheng.
30.Kangxi Qinghua wrote a lot of years, the majority of the book in the body of tattooed tail, by the chronological order:
Qing Kang Xi’s first year blue-and-white cloud and dragon pattern incense burner
“Xinhai” (10 years) Qinghua landscape character plate, Qinghua Eight Immortals furnace,
“Guichou” style (12 years), blue-and-white landscape pen holder,
“Not yet” (eighteen years), the poetries of the Qinghua characters,
“Jia Zi” (23 years) Qinghua character tripod furnace, ”
“Ding Mao” (26 years), the pen holder of the Qing Hua Poems,
“Already” (28 years) Green Flower Yunlong Furnace,
“Gengwu” (29 years) Qinghua Fisherman Le Tu square mallet bottle,
“Renshen” paragraph (31 years) Qing Hua Teng Wang Ge Xu pen,
“Ding Chou” style (36 years) blue-and-white landscape character pen case,
“Wu-Yin” (37 years), blue and white, Luo-han grain cylinder, many bottles,
“B” paragraph (54 years) blue and white figure pattern phoenix tail respect, etc.
These instruments with a clear chronology provide an accurate basis for our identification of the same type of device, in-depth study of the system.