The beauty of Yuan Qing Hua, how to describe it?
Jingdezhen production of Yuan Qinghua has more than 650 years of history.There is no record of the Yuan flower in history. The world’s understanding of the Yuan flower porcelain began with the collection of a pair of blue flower cloud-dragon-pattern elephant-ear bottles by Sir Percival Davide with the inscription “The Eleventh Year” (1351).
In the 1950s, Dr. John Pope, an American scholar, identified a number of blue-and-white porcelain objects similar to the “11-year-old” blue-and-white cloud and dragon-shaped earbottle patterns from the collection of the Topkabi Museum in Turkey and the Adbier Temple in Iran. Names them as” proper “blue and white flowers.
In the future, the blue vase became a yardstick for measuring many of the same types of porcelain. Using the chronicles on the porcelain vase to date, it reduced many laborious reasoning and cumbersome textual research.
The history of Yuanqinghua is only more than 60 years, almost all of them have no chronological identity, and the relevant documents are extremely rare.
Yuan Qing Hua Yun Long Wen Jian
The beauty of Yuan Qing Hua, how to describe it?
Like the big stars of Hollywood in the 1950s and ’60s, like Hepburn.Not the Roman Holiday, but the Hepburn in Tiffany’s Breakfast.
Breakfast at Tiffany’s
Extraordinary beautiful woman, but not from a wealthy family, but the grass-roots family, floating to New York, such a metropolis.
Yuan Qing Hua phoenix pattern jade pot, spring vase
For a long time, people did not know that the Yuan Dynasty and blue-and-white porcelain, all believed that blue-and-white was born in the Ming Dynasty Yongxuan period.
In addition to the Ming Dynasty, Qinghua Yongxuan, seems to show a little bit of emotion, holding, can not be released.
Ming Xuande Qinghua Ganoderma lucidum pattern pomegranate
Mingyongle blue-and-white sea water vase with dragon pattern
Qing Yong Zheng Qing Hua Hua bird pattern cylinder
The blue-and-white flower is unique.
Yuanqing flower, mandarin duck, sleeping lotus picture, jade jug, spring vase
Here are some simple methods of identification of the Yuanqing flower:
The Yuanqing flower, taking the “Zhengzheng” as the model, also includes” Yanyou type “and some blue-and-white porcelain with simple patterns and low sales levels.In order to improve the science of “observation”, on the basis of the research results of the predecessors, this paper, combining public and private collections, discusses some superficial knowledge on the identification of Yuanqinghua:
1. Big flowers and large leaves, leaves full, but flowers do not fill the color, and the external drawing of a more obvious blank line.Shan Shi, sea water, characters, animal printsAnd so on, also similar, the decorative interior white.
2. Twisted-branch lotus leaves. “Leaves are mostly gourd-shaped, or have one to five valves.”
3, deformable lotus-leaf edge decoration, some for a group, some painting two groups, constitute the corresponding up-down, cover lotus-leaf decorative.In addition to the disk, the lotus petals on other types are arranged in the form of monomer, and there is a gap between the lotus petals, which is not connected with each other.In Hongwu period of Ming Dynasty, the lotus-leaf fringes of bottles, pots, plates and bowls were all of the same type except for the jars and brackets, and the painting was carried through the Ming and Qing dynasties.
4, Banana leaf lines, most of them separate, leaves and leaves with space between, a small number of parallel type or leaf and leaf overlapping shape.At the beginning of the Ming Dynasty, there were many overlapping forms, and occasionally there were separate forms.After Xuande, banana leaf lines almost no separate, all of them overlap together.In addition, the main veins of the Yuan Dynasty banana leaves are all expressed by thick lines; after Ming Dynasty, the main veins of the banana leaves are white and hollow, and the thick lines of the main veins of the Yuan Dynasty banana leaves are visually distinct and striking.
5. Ruyi cloud head pattern (also known as” cloud head pattern “,” cloud shoulder pattern “,” vertical cloud pattern “).The tip of the cloud head intersects the two cloud feet, pointing back and forth.That is, Ruyi moire two cloud feet between the pointed, and the head of the pointed cloud, the opposite direction, with few exceptions.And the head of Hongwu, Ruyi cloud and the pointed point of the foot, are in the same direction, there is no exception, and follow to forever.The two pointed points of Ruyi’s cloud head have both the same direction and the opposite direction.
6. Ribbed edges.It is composed of separate monosyllables, some of which are square, some of which are deformed and some of which are subtractive.In Hongwu period of Ming Dynasty, the rims were arranged in a positive-negative form.Ming Yongle to two-party-oriented, but also a ring-style back-grain decoration.After Xuande, except a few edge decoration is still a positive-negative two-sided arrangement, most of the rims edge show a whole circle of a circular type, and continue to the end of the Qing Dynasty.
7. Dragon lines.The Yuan Dynasty blue-and-white porcelain, painted a lot of dragons.The dragon is slender, with a thin neck, thin legs, thin claws, and a pointed tail (occasionally a large flame-shaped tail), and a light body.The head is small, long antlers, mouth opening, tongue spitting, the lower palate of the dragon has whiskers, the upper jaw generally does not need, but, up to 11 years, the dragon upper jaw of the standard instrument has double whiskers, and this kind of belt double whiskers phenomenon, in the Yuanqing pieces of other dragon pattern is very rare.There are two types of dragon body scales, meshed thin scales (see figure), white scales are rare, the latter is more delicate dragon dorsal fin, abdominal usually without transverse striations.Chest and back, often decorated with flame-like ribbon.The elbows have long hairs of three to four or a pinch.Dragon claw to three claw, four claw for the majority, five claw is very rare.
8. The jade jug spring vase in the yuqing flower vertical piece and the halberd, in which part of the mouth is often painted with a curly grass or cloud-head edge decoration.After the Ming Dynasty, this kind of inner edge decoration phenomenon still existed on the jade jug spring vase in the Hongwu Dynasty, and disappeared after the Hongwu period.
9, Yuan Dynasty decorative use of flat coating method, “Some is in the thick brush on the edge of the light color”, small device for a dot stroke, this is the so-called “a pen” painting method.From the beginning of Ming-cheng, “two-pen” technology is long, the line and fill color are respectively completed.”The Ming Dynasty blue-and-white is more than fill color or sketch. This technique on the different, can also be divided into Yuan, Ming blue-and-white porcelain.”
10. The Yuan Dynasty porcelain tyre, compared with the late Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty porcelain tyre, has a feeling of hardness and softness.”Fetal quality is not as refined as the Ming and Qing porcelain, so there are more sand holes, brush marks and iron spots in the sand bottom, and in the foot, mouth edge and the shrinkage of the glaze of the tire show flint red.”
In addition to holding jug, jade jug spring bottle, the bottom of the objects generally exposed.Spicy bottom often stick to glaze spots, this is the style of the times.”Put the cup, the bottom of the bowl more than the inside does not hang glaze, the individual in the inside of the high foot hanging half-load glaze.”The mouth of the big pot is usually glazed, the mouth of the small pot is exposed, the plum bottle is originally covered with a lid, the lid does not apply glaze, which is also a characteristic, some imitations are covered with glazes.
12. Most of the canisters have large mouth and small feet, which are different from those of Ming and Qing Dynasties.Bowl, dish, cup’s circle foot is smaller, foot wall is wider, thicker, give a person a kind of head and feet light feeling.Some objects can be seen at the bottom of the obvious spiral marks, some of the phenomenon of sand.Bowl, dish, cup circle the bottom of the foot common convex milk, commonly known as” navel “, for one of the characteristics of Yuan porcelain.
13, The body of large pieces of the body is generally thick, small pieces of the body are very thin, most of the body is thin in later Ming Dynasty.The imitation is not, small parts also appear very thick.
(14) In addition to some standing pieces with higher exposed tyres, the small jars and jars of Yuan Dynasty are often found on the proximal foot (shin).A mark, usually three, left by a craftsman holding or brushing the glaze.This phenomenon lasted until the middle of the Ming Dynasty.
15, into the earth things, in the body of the tire mark (similar to bamboo wire brush marks), often appear soil erosion marks (the inner wall of the yuan organ is mostly hanging glaze, glaze is the thinnest, so bamboo wire brush marks are vulnerable to soil erosion).It is worth paying attention to whether the soil is natural and the distribution is reasonable.
The last thing to say is that, whether in the cellar or in the world, the flower will eventually solidify some of the imprints of time: buried in the ground, its glaze thin, irresistible to dye with earth, soil spots; secret in the cellar, glaze will also because of the age of the old, showing the texture of the old, Baoguang contains.And the world’s products, due to the vicissitudes of life and years of touching the cause, glaze is more moist, precious light overflow; or because of the use of the glaze will inevitably have a slight erosion or collision, as well as support points and the force of the parts, because of wear scratches across, fine, And a lot of old gas attached.