A Survey of Blue-and-White Porcelain in Yuan Dynasty unearthed in China
Since the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the data of Yuan Qinghua unearthed from archaeological excavations mainly come from four aspects: cellars, tombs, sites and kiln sites.
Generally speaking, the number of blue-and-white porcelain unearthed from the cellars in Yuan Dynasty is not only relatively large, but also relatively exquisite.Cellar is because of the same cultural relics for special reasons, was buried in a hole-like place, and this unearthed cultural relics of the pit is called cellars, unearthed cultural relics are called cellars.
The cellar has some characteristics: it is one of the storage methods with simple structure, convenient construction and good performance, which is developed on the basis of burial.Most of the pits are built below the soil layer, making full use of the weak thermal conductivity of the soil and the insulating effect of dry soil to achieve a more suitable and stable temperature and humidity.Because the cellar can enter and exit freely, it is convenient for ventilation and humidity control, the storage effect is good and the risk is relatively small.There are many kinds of cellars, and different types of cellars are built according to the topography and storage needs.General has shed cellar, well cellar, kiln cellar and so on.
Since the founding of the People’s Republic of China, there are about 16 cellars unearthed in Yuan Dynasty with 84 pieces.
Dantu, Jiangsu Province: In September 1962, a celled porcelain was found in Dantu Commune, Dantu County, Jiangsu Province.In total,26 porcelain pieces were unearthed, including 6 high-foot cup of Yuanqing flower,5 painted plum moons and 1 painted bamboo (Liu Xing, Zhenjiang Museum: “Dantu Yuan Dynasty Cellar Porcelain in Jiangsu Province”, “Cultural Relics”, No.2,1982).
Baoding, Hebei Province: In May 1964, Baoding City found a Yuan Dynasty cellar, a total of 11 pieces of porcelain unearthed, including 6 pieces of blue and white flowers, two pieces of blue-and-white glaze red open-colored big pot, two pieces of blue-and-white sea water covered with eight-edge plum vase, and one piece of green-flower eight-edge jade pot, spring vase. Qinghua Baleng Zhu 1 (Hebei Museum: “Baoding City found a batch of Yuan Dynasty porcelain”, “Cultural Relics” 1965, No.2).
Jintan, Jiangsu Province: In April 1966, a Yuan Dynasty cellar was found in Jintan County, Jiangsu Province.A large blue-and-white dragon-shaped pot with a silver bowl at its mouth and more than 50 pieces of silverware were found in it (Xiao Menglong, Zhenjiang Museum: Qinghua Yunlong Cave in Yuan Dynasty in Jintan, Jiangsu Province, No.1 Cultural Relics in 1980).
Huo City, Ili, Xinjiang: In the spring of 1976, a batch of porcelain was found under 30 cm from the surface of a farm in Huocheng County, Ili area, Xinjiang, and most of it was unable to recover.Among the pieces are Longquan, Xifu, Cizhou, Jun and Jingdezhen products, including a blue-and-white double phoenix pattern high-foot bowl (Xinjiang Museum: “Xinjiang Yili District Huocheng County unearthed Yuan blue-and-white porcelain”, “Cultural Relics”, No.8,1979).
Bohe Shao in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia: In 1980, more than 40 pieces of porcelain were unearthed from a Yuan Dynasty porcelain cellar in Bohhot, an eastern suburb of Hohhot.Among them is a blue-and-white plum-grass pattern high-foot cup (Li Caiping: “Hohhot East Suburb Baohe Shao unearthed the gold-yuan porcelain”, “Inner Mongolia Cultural Relics Archaeology”, No.1,1994)
)Gaoan, Jiujiang, Jiangxi Province: In November 1980,245 pieces of porcelain were unearthed in Jiujiang, including 239 pieces of porcelain,19 pieces of Yuanqing flowers,10 pieces of high-foot cups,1 bottle with cloud-dragon pattern,2 cans with lotus leaf and cloud-dragon pattern, and 3 bottles with plum cover. Two plum bottles with cloud-shoulder pattern of tangled peony peony, and one with banana leaf grain. (Liu Yu, Black Bear Lin, Museum of Gaoan County, Jiangxi Province: “The porcelain cellars of Yuanqing Flower and Glazing Red in Gaoan County, Jiangxi Province”, Cultural Relics, No.4,1982).
She County, Anhui Province: In March 1982, the Shexian Branch of the People’s Bank of China discovered a Yuan Dynasty cellar during construction.Only one blue-and-white dragon-shaped high-foot cup (Ye Hanyun, Xia Yuenan and Hu Chengen of Shexian Museum: “Two batches of gold-covered porcelain treasures unearthed in Shexian”, “Cultural Relics”, No.5,1988).
Jurong, Jiangsu: In May 1985, a porcelain cellar in the Yuan Dynasty was found in the eastern part of Jurong County, Jiangsu Province. One blue-and-white Yunlong jar and two blue-and-white Yunlong plum bottles were unearthed. (Chen Shihua: “The unearthed blue-and-white porcelain ware of the Yuan Dynasty”, “Southeast Culture”, No.3,1991).
Pingxiang Cellar in Jiangxi Province: In September 1985,29 pieces of porcelain were unearthed in Pingxiang City, Jiangxi Province, including 10 pieces of blue-and-white porcelain,1 piece of incense burner with chrysanthemum pattern and double ears,2 pieces of incense burner with plum blossom pattern,1 piece of rabbit pattern, and 1 piece of high-foot cup with phoenix pattern. Five flower-grain bowls (Pingxiang Museum: “Pingxiang City discovered the Yuan Dynasty blue-and-white porcelain and other cultural relics”,” Jiangxi Historical Cultural Relics”, No.1,1986).
Jining Road, Inner Mongolia: In 2003, three cellars (J19, J24, J39) were excavated from the ancient ruins of Jining Road, Inner Mongolia.J19 unearthed 40 pieces of porcelain, including one small blue-and-white calyx.J24 unearthed 9 pieces of porcelain, including blue and white cloud dragon pattern high foot cup 2 pieces (Fig.12), blue and white cloud phoenix pattern high foot cup 3 pieces (Fig.13), green flower twining chrysanthemum pattern high foot cup 1 piece (Fig.14).J39 unearthed 1 blue-and-white pear-shaped pot (Fig.15) (Chen Yongzhi: “Blue-and-white porcelain unearthed from the ancient city of the Yuan Dynasty, Jining Road, Inner Mongolia”, “Cultural Relics World”, No.12,2004).
In addition, in recent decades, more than a dozen provinces and cities in China have been excavated blue-and-white porcelain, some of which are excavated from cellars, some are unearthed from tombs, and some are unearthed from the ruins of the Yuan Dynasty.
The tomb of Yen You Wu Wu Wu Wu Wu in Jiujiang City, Jiangxi Province (1318 ~ 1319, Yanyou five to six years) was excavated with a Yuan Qing Hua pagoda-shaped covered vase.
Yuan Qing Hua Red Glaze Pavilion-style porcelain storehouse with an inscription “Yuan Hou to Yuan Wu Yin June” (1338) unearthed in the tomb of Fengcheng County, Jiangxi Province.
Jingdezhen Ceramics Collection has a “Wu Zi year” (to eight years,1348 years) Ming Yuanqinghua twining Ganoderma lucidum pot.
A three-leg furnace with double-ear chrysanthemum patterns of Yuanqing flower unearthed from a tomb in Jiujiang City, Jiangxi Province, in the 11th year (1351).
From the perspective of the world, there are still many shortcomings in the study of the porcelain of the Yuan Dynasty. The most important reasons are the lack of some valuable archaeological studies and proofs, the lack of selection and judgment of standard instruments, and the lack of documentary records. This point has not been recorded in the literature of the Yuan Qing Hua can not be changed, so can only hope that the future of the enrichment of archaeological data.Now because the market price of the Yuanqing flower in the non-rational height, many collectors fans have reached a degree of obsession with the pursuit and love of Yuanqinghua, so in line with some speculative counterfeiters under the heart, so now the market “all over the city is Yuanqinghua”.Therefore, the judgment of Yuanqinghua should be careful, more reference should be made to unearthed porcelain, and more research and comparison should be made on the cultural relics handed down in an orderly manner