YUAN YUAN | RESEARCH ON THE PROFILE OF THE BAOYUAN CULTURE INVESTIGATION
“Blue Spectacle” is a special exhibition of blue-and-white porcelain in the Yuan Dynasty prepared by Shanghai Museum for ten years.Due to the rare existence and relatively scattered collection of Yuanqing porcelain, it is not easy to get together and come out together.
So far, there are two official organizations of the Yuan blue-and-white porcelain exhibition.2009The Beijing Capital Museum was the first to hold the “memory of Qinghua _ Yuan Dynasty blue-and-white porcelain culture exhibition,” the author was invited to attend, and has been impressed.The original blue-and-white porcelain on display in Shoubo is mainly collected in various parts of China. Most of the objects are unearthed, excavated or hoarded, with a more accurate background.More than 70 pieces of collections strive to show the variety diversity of blue-and-white porcelain in Yuan Dynasty.Domestic and mixed green material of medium and small-sized products more, the color of the import materials imported materials are less.The exhibition, on the other hand, is based on the theme of “Zhengzheng” Yuanhua, with a heavy proportion of large items.(Figure 1) It is not difficult to find through the exhibition, this exhibit in the selection, the curator can be said to be painstakingly selected.No matter from material color, decorative or instrument type, inheritance and so on all have strong comparability, similarity.So that the viewer can be timely on-the-spot comparison.If the first wide-spread Yuanqing flower exhibition is the primary class, then this exhibition is even more professional and more advanced classes.
(Fig.1) Exhibits of “Blue Exhibit” on Yuan Qing Hua
More commendable is that a number of overseas collection institutions from the Yuanqinghua “typical device”, “standard device” in the exhibition also appeared together, such as” the right blue and white cloud dragon elephant ear bottle “,” Zhaojun out of the plug “and05It was created at Christie’s auction in London in nineteen ninety-nine2.3A billion “sky-high price” and a time-famous” ghost valley down the hill “cans have also been there, more become a major point of view of this exhibition!
These are well-known and well-known Yuan blue-and-white porcelain, although often used in a variety of catalogues, but objects almost the same picture, only suitable for general appreciation and the introduction of ceramic knowledge popularization.This lack of realistic images, for real researchers and enthusiasts are hard to quench thirst.The author goes to Shanghai continuously7Tianguan exhibition, nine to five daily stop at the Shanghai Bo Exhibition Hall.Every object was carefully examined and compared, especially for the famous objects which were never found in the overseas collections.At the same time, there are some new understandings and discoveries, taking this opportunity to share the data for our study.
One. “Zhizheng” year-old blue and white cloud dragon elephant ear bottle (Great Wade Foundation of England)
In 1929, the English scholar Hobson’s” Old Furniture “opened the way to the exploration of green flowers
First of all, it is said that the blue-and-blue flower Yunlong elephant ear bottle, commonly known as the “Vyde bottle” or “right bottle.”1929Robert Hobson, British Scholar (Hobson,R.LMr. Wang first published the blue-and-white vase in the publication of Old Furniture magazine, and began the exploration of the blue-and-white porcelain before the Ming Dynasty.(Fig.2) Because the vase is so famous, it is the first work to reveal the history of Yuan Qing Hua. All the publications that mentioned the blue and white porcelain in Yuan Dynasty listed it as the first “standard”.Although the related introduction is more, but this thing is far in the UK, not easy to show people, so there has been a lack of high-definition images, to hinder research.As a result, some details of the characteristics have not attracted attention, the author through the close-up observation, there are some new findings.
1.The porcelains had three short cuts along the edge of the tapestry.Two are located on one side of the banana leaf, and the other is on the top of the inscription “Xinzhou Road, Yushan County”.(Figure 3)
2.The original flat round porcelain ring in the elephant’s ear is now damaged.Through the broken place, you can still see the blue and white decoration.The order of its production should be drawn as a blue-and-white decoration and then added to the ring ear, by the glaze link, with the head of the elephant head of a twisted piece of mud as the upper part of the ring ear reinforcement point, the bottom of the bottle adhered to.(Figure 4)
(Fig.4) The marks of loss of the porcelain ring at the elephant’s ear are obvious
Although this question has been put forward by some scholars, but relatively rare objects can be compared, so what the state of the missing porcelain ring has been unknown.Some scholars have tried to restore the porcelain ring lost by the elephant-ear bottle in Longquan kiln in Yuan Dynasty, but there is no direct and powerful basis.According to the author, Beijing2005In the year around, a similar shape of the Yuan Dynasty elephant ear ring shadow blue bottle, although slightly small size, but the elephant ears and porcelain rings are in, it is clear that the elephant ear bottle lost porcelain ring is not the type of Longquan kiln cylindrical ring, but “Yuan” shape ring.There is a decisive reference for the restoration of “zhengzheng” blue vase.(Group V)
(Group Figure 5) Yuan Dynasty elephant ear bottle
3.”disciple Zhang Wenjin” and “Hu Jingyi a marshal” the inscription place side light careful examination will find someone to polish the mark.Fig6. The grinding marks are vertical, fine and regular, and should be caused by someone trying to remove the names of the two people during the passage of time.
(Fig.6) Remaining stains on the glaze after artificial wear
With only one of the two bottles on display, it’s not clear whether the other one is in the same category.According to the author’s analysis, because this porcelain bottle in the country has been a pair of preservation, since the loss of the Republic of China period was separated after a period of time, and after Sir David has been divided into two purchases preserved so far, so the scratches can only appear in the country and in the Republic of China before the loss of this period.If this hypothesis is true, there should be the same deliberate wear and tear on the inscription on another Yunlong vase.As for why want to “disciple Zhang Wenjin” and “Hu Jing a marshal” two ground off?When did people do it?What kind of stories are there before they go abroad? Both of them are worthy of further discussion and tracing.
It is worth reference that in ancient times, there was a habit of grinding or re-painting the former objects and then changing the cost to the former.And the theft of some sacrificial objects is a common fact.
In ancient times, some people used to “whitewash” the stolen sacrificial vessels and then re-circulate them into “alms”.Therefore, the history of many porcelain with the curse and punishment of stealing ritual warning, such as” take the use of male prostitutes”, “someone to steal the bowl forget eight” and so on.(“Forget” for “King” avoid the word) more vicious such as” somebody take the blame to the devil “,” steal the dead “,” steal the wrong woman? “These are very distinctive “Curse” figure of recognition, can map out sacrificial articles stolen use of chaos.It is not known whether this” borrowing flowers to offer buddha “has ever appeared on the” zhengzheng “bottle, but it provides a new reference to reveal the phenomenon of” grinding money “.
(Fig.7) Curse on the sacrificial porcelain at the end of the Ming Dynasty
4.The sea-water and peony patterns of the “Zhizheng” elephant earbottle are similar to those of the “ghost valley” jar, the “fish algae” jar in Osaka, Japan, and the “peony” jar with blue and white animal heads unearthed in Bengbu, Anhui Province.(Fig.8) In particular, waves with fine lines such as hair, the shape of the waves and the movement of the pen are similar.This arrangement of waves, which also appears on the mandarin duck can in Cambridge, England, is a coherent pair of big waves, there is no small spray spacing between them.The spray has a double-angled head on both sides.Therefore, the author considers that these blue-and-white objects are not only works of the same painter, and the production time is not too far apart, may be a specific period of time within the product.(Figure 8)
5.Remarkably, there are lotus-petal embellishments at the bottom of the jar.In the decoration, there are the popular “miscellaneous treasures” of the Yuan Dynasty porcelain. These” miscellaneous treasures” with religious colors are separated by the “flame” patterns.The same situation with the “miscellaneous treasure” arrangement of the “ghost valley” cans, “fish algae” cans, animal head “peony” cans and nanjing hidden “xiao he” plum bottles.”Bengbu” cans, “ghost valley” cans and “Xiao He” plum bottles are used together with lotus.(Figure 8)
The author points out that these accessories with very similar decorative patterns can be divided into the same period in the making period.Through the common features of their unique decorative, gradually “Zhengzheng” Yuanqinghua style of similar, similar years of peeling out, for Yuanqinghua porcelain in-depth study to establish a new “standard” reference!
(Fig.8) Comparison of the similarity of the sea flame complexes
Two. Ghost Valley Downhill Green People’s Pot
“Ghost Valley down the hill” can green beautiful hair color, rich color green, accurate composition, skilled writing.Through on-site comparison, and at the same time the exhibition of “right” blue-and-white Yunlong elephant ear bottle blue-and-white color is relatively close.Its mouth decorated with sea lines, shoulder peony decoration and Japan’s Osaka Dongyang Ceramic Museum collection of the original blue-and-white algal jar, like a painting.And the bottom foot of these three works are decorated with the “flame space miscellaneous treasure” lotus valve arrangement order, more enhance the author of the three Yuan Qing Hua is the same painter in a similar period of time created out of the judgment.(Fig.8) There are many “chicken-paw patterns” caused by the impact of hard objects on the inside of the tank, one of which is penetrated from inside to outside the jar, just across the diagonal lines of the face of the civilian” Su Dai “painted by the blue and white flowers.(Figure 9)
(Fig.9) There is also a disability in the pricey gooseberry jar
I was lucky enough to be here2005On the eve of the auction held this pot, and the guest CCTV special interview “revealed the sky-high price of ancient porcelain” in the program-this billion yuan “sky-high price” ancient porcelain is not the whole experience.Although the value of ancient ceramics is greatly influenced by the advantages and disadvantages of the products, the expression of the value of the rare varieties with high artistic attainments is still “not hidden in the jade”.
Over the years, the Yuan Qinghua “ghost valley” once again home, for more ceramic lovers to provide a deep understanding of the Yuanqing rare opportunity.It is also this rare “save relatives”, so that the author has a Yuan Qinghua production process of amazing discovery _” finalization line “! That is, there is a little-known “invisible ghost valley map” on the Ghost Valley can already known to us!On the “Invisible Ghost Valley” detailed explanation, the author in2013Nian Di2Phase “cultural relics in the world” has been described in a special paper, so there is no more time spent in writing.
But it is worth reiterating that although the “finalization line” also has the role of “positioning” and “drafting”, it is much more refined than the “positioning line” of the layout of the distribution pattern, such as the trend of sleeve wrinkles, the height of the horse’s hoof raised, the position of the scar knot in the tree trunk and the expression of the shading method on the rock, These detailed processing, are “finalization line” and “positioning line” the role of essentially different.
It can be said that the “ghost valley downhill” map is strictly in accordance with the “finalization line” of the pre-delineation and description of the blue and white.(Fig.10) And the use of this special drafting method, the “finalization line”, is not found on all blue-and-white porcelain.Simply put, not all of the Yuanqing theme needs to be finalized so carefully before starting painting.
(Figure 10) Distribution of “Invisible Ghost Valley”
According to the author’s research and observation, the use of this” finalization line “is by no means an exception.At the same time on the display of several Yuanqing, I have found the same use of the “final draft” works.According to the author’s summarization of the regularity of the use of the “finalization line”, it is believed that it plays a key role in promoting the further division of the age of the “most positive” type.On this part of the study, the author will reveal another text.
Three. Blue and white flowers, birds and waterfowl six-edged bottle (University of Cambridge, the Fitzwilliam Museum in the United Kingdom)
(The Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge University, UK)
Plum bottle in Yuan Dynasty is generally trapezoidal cylinder, a few of them are octagonal, but it is rare to adopt hexagon-shaped solid.The six-sided concave of this plum vase, showing a six-petal melon rhombus, is more rare.The bottle neck part draws six groups of deformation lotus petal patterns, and six kinds of flowers are drawn inside. The variant lotus petal lengths run through the mouth of the bottle and extend to the shoulder of the plum bottle. The lotus petal lines are divided into two frames by a convex edge between the bottlenecks, which is like a circular hoop. At first glance, it would seem to be two sets of irrelevant embellishment.This kind of form that divides the picture into two is also a characteristic of the decoration technique of Yuanqing flower.(Figure 11)
1.Plum bottle neck part has a horizontal flush, the bottle body opens bright lotus pond mandarin duck picture window has the more obvious long punch.
2.Plum bottle shoulder, abdomen, near foot and so on many by the blue and white depiction Ruyi shape open window place, can see hidden under the blue and white line, in advance shallow carving “positioning” line, this kind of pre-shallow carving “positioning” line will picture several needs to draw Ruyi shape window position are very clear, Convenient blue and white drawing after the window position, the size is basically the same.
Four. Blue and white wild goose lotus miscellaneous treasure pattern yurts (russia’s el mitash museum)
This is the first time a very rare blue-and-white porcelain work of the Yuan Dynasty has been made public.The whole is like a yurts shape, hollow, there is no glaze.The body of the instrument is covered with open pieces, and the traces of passing on to the world are obvious.The decoration is divided into five layers, using green flowers to leave white decoration techniques to draw the cloud flying wild goose, tangled branch chrysanthemum, tangled branch lotus, sea water and miscellaneous treasure decoration.There are many swirls in the middle of the wave, and the difference between the two big waves is that there is a small spray like “claw”.The arrangement of the “claw”-like waves is particularly evident at the edge of the jar.
And “right” like ear bottle, yurts between the miscellaneous treasures of the decoration also with flame pattern, but all use the techniques of white embodiment, one of the lotus petal is cut like a gate, quite strange.(Figure 12)
(Fig.12) Decoration of the yurts against the blue and white flowers
And this” blue and white “anti-blue and white decorative techniques and also displayed at the National Museum of Iran’s anti-blue” water bird “pattern rhombus plate (Figure 13), The British Museum’s anti-blue flower “peony chrysanthemum” pattern rhombus plate (Figure 14) and the British Victoria and Albert Museum’s anti-blue flower “Ruyi peony chrysanthemum miscellaneous treasure” pattern plate (Figure 15) not only in the same painting techniques, There is also a strong similarity in the expression of local decorative patterns.
Five. Twisted-branch floral pattern hollowed-out stand (stored at the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge University, UK)
The blue-and-white instrument seat is large, the hair color is gorgeous, the color is black blue.Decoration entwined branch lotus and peony, there are hollowed-out window in the middle.The first layer of embellishment of the object caused by the grinding of the edge of the mouth is the tapestry of the theme, and the author thinks that there should be at least one auxiliary layer of embellishment on the upper part of the object.Careful observation will find that although the lower part of the grass circle of auxiliary decorative, but the same wear marks, after all, the lower part of the defect, the missing location of the shape can not be known.At present we see this hollowed-out seat, should be the middle part of the whole object, not the full shape.(Figure 16)
(Figure 16) There is a defect in the seat and bottom
Six. Tree-twined peony set (Qinghai Museum)
This piece is more blue-colored, fainting and heavy.In the exhibition, the museum intends to place the two sets together, making it easier to compare and match.(Fig.17) However, after careful observation, three traces of damage were found at the bottom. Judging by the pattern and shape of the remaining triangles, some of the following should be considered complete.According to the author’s conjecture of the same period of egg-white glaze, this organ should also have three feet.(Fig.18) A few traces of blue-and-white embellishment can be found in the position of the remaining foot.
(Fig.17) There are still a few blue-and-white embellishments in the remaining position
(Fig.18) Yuan Dynasty egg white glaze flask
Seven. Blue and white three-door plum vase (Boston Museum of Art, USA)
This plum vase is one of the few pieces of Yuanqing flower products with original cover, which is very rare.(Fig.19) The same works of the past century have been handed down from generation to generation80In the years sotheby’s auction of the yuanhua three-door character jar.Although the two works are the same, but both painting and composition are significantly different.(Fig.20) The three-box blue-and-white pot in the auction is closer to the standard of “the right type” Yuanqing, and should be closer to the “ghost valley down the hill” can, “Xiao He” plum vase and other objects in the performance techniques.And this piece of plum vase painted by the brush more casual, and not to pursue the use of pen-style and overall style.The depiction of background and auxiliary decoration is a simple description with embellishment, which is not emphasized and is not consistent with each other.Although the overall circular painting “Liu, Guan, Zhang” and “Kong Ming, Book Boy” and other five people, can be described as a dense pattern, but such as fine overall picture layout also lacks a sense of compactness.Because of the small size of the plum vase and the above-mentioned reasons, the visual impact and shock power to the viewer are reduced relative to the works of the most positive characters.
(Figure 19) Three Cousins and Plum Pots
(Fig.20) Three-door Café
1.The cover is punched and the button is repaired.
2.The seven lotus-petal fringes near the foot of the plum-vase made a mistake in painting.Five of them are under the circle of the upper dot, and two inside the lotus petal appear the pen error of the dot under the upper circle.(Fig.21) I wonder if it was the intention of the painter in that year.Here the appearance of the producer’s arbitrariness, and “right” blue-and-white characters works do not have this phenomenon.
(Fig.21) Pencil Errors in Lotus Peaks
Eight. Green flower zhaojun out of the jar (deguang art museum in japan)
Mention Yuan Qinghua “Zhaojun out of the pot”, we are no stranger.The name of this work is no less than the “real” Yunlong elephant ear bottle.In the last century, almost all the works of Yuan Qing-hua, especially the works of Yuan Qing-hua characters, will regard the objects as the representative of “typical instruments”.In the field of international research, “Zhaojun out-of-the-box” tank mirror rate has been much higher than the domestic “Xiao He month under the pursuit of Han Xin” plum bottle fame.It is a rare opportunity to examine the work at close range.
Compared with the works of several people of the Yuan Dynasty, the most outstanding feeling for the author is that glaze is super-good, with a “brand-new light” description is not too much.But unfortunately, this well-known “typical device” also failed to pass the test of time.Through close observation, this artifact damage is larger, from the mouth of the sea lines to the front “Zhaojun” riding white horse, can up and down about 10 places have been repaired treatment, can sigh the sky jealous of the beauty, this famous Yuanqinghua products should be “major surgery” repair pieces.(Figure 22)
And its mouth wave decoration and Iran’s National Museum of “Capricorn” Errui animal peony jar along the mouth of the same.Both groups of large waves were separated by “claw”-shaped sponges.(Fig.23) It is believed that by examining the detailed features of such embellishment, it is possible to accurately identify the products from the same period of time.
(Figure 23) Large waves are “clawed” by small waves between them
Nine. Green flower tangled branch chrysanthemum jade jug spring vase (British Museum)
This blue-and-white jade jug bottle, hidden in England, is not uncommon in early 20th-century publications.Especially in the early English journals, it is also a famous piece of Yuanhua that must be mentioned by Fengyuan and is often quoted.
1.The nipple of the neck is broken and has a long blow to the belly of the object.
2.There was a knock on the foot and two lack of meat.
3.Through a few days of careful observation and according to the author often touch Southeast Asia Yuanqinghua “water out” objects experience, combined with this jade pot spring vase glaze overall corrosion degree, the author decided that this should be an early water out of the “sea” Yuan blue and white porcelain!After long-term immersion, the glaze has lost its original glass luster, and presents a frosted state.We have long been immersed in the depiction of its ornate rhetoric, and this most important feature has been slow to report.
Eight. Blue and white lotus pond mandarin duck pot (Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge University, UK)
This blue-and-white work is most striking in the processing of lotus leaves, with a small “poking” method of painting the outline of the lotus leaves, unlike the regular lotus leaves, which are commonly found in the blue-and-white flowers.But the effect is more realistic, showing the lotus leaf back of the kind of velvet tie the feeling, the traditional Chinese ink painting for the withered lotus leaf state reflected incisively and vividly.Cooperate with four large mandarin ducks swimming and floating duckweed full of water, make the whole device lively and lively, full of interest.(Fig.25) It is important to note that although the object has only two lines, the edge of the sea is similar to that of “Ghost Valley”, which belongs to the composition of “Big Wave Two-way Continuity”.
1.There are two short cuts along the mouth.There are many chicken feet in the abdomen (not through)
2. The largest diameter of the abdomen has many transverse abrasion marks, that is, deep and long.It can be seen that the living environment of that year is extremely bad.This kind of mark, which looks like rough sand paper, has been questioned by many exhibitors about the authenticity of the exhibits.Through many years of research on the Yuan Dynasty and early Ming Dynasty porcelain, the author believes that this situation is not rare.Some of the large doors of handed-down porcelain glaze, there are similar to a deliberate grinding of the depth of scratches.Therefore, it is not suitable for the primary blue-and-white porcelain to be appraised by the degree of glaze damage alone as the criterion of authenticity.(Figure 26)
Although the grand exhibition of Yuan Qing Hua has already come to an end, the charm of Yuan Qing Hua has made a lot of fans begin their research and exploration.And those high-definition pictures on the book are also mostly after beautifying the “fairy photo”, with the physical or there is not small gap.Through the close observation of this exhibition, the author chooses some details of the famous Yuanqing flowers, which are not often mentioned in the previous works, and tries to restore to the readers a true yuanhua information for reference, so that these former secret “national treasures” are no longer mysterious, It also provides the first-hand information for the systematic study of the “Zhi-zheng-type Yuanhua”.
(Antique Element Network Collaborative Appraisal Expert)Introduction:Mr. Lujie is a guest of CCTV Ceramics, collector, ceramic researcher, member of China Heritage Society, member of Ancient Ceramics Research Association, director of the Antique and Replication Committee of China Heritage Society, and is included in Baidu Encyclopedia.
Mr. Lujie registered the Antique Forum in the late 1990s and became the first group of “elders” active in the ceramic forum in China.Especially in the early stage of Yachang Forum in 2002, the registered ID of its No.102 is a well-known “celebrity” among many netizens.Mr. Lujie was instructed by Mr. Geng Baochang, the master of ceramic industry, and the spirit of the old Liulichang antiquarian, “the industry is more expensive than the specialty”, he gradually extended the ancient ceramics from the era to the systematic study.And in early Jingdezhen kiln in early Ming Dynasty colored porcelain, Hongwu imperial kiln and sacrificial offering system, the Yuan Dynasty egg white glaze inscriptions and objects and other ceramic research in the field of unique ideas, and the collection of relevant materials are also the first in China, made up for the development history of ceramics in the Yuan and Ming transition period of the lack.Mr. Lujie has won the trust and dialing of many of his predecessors. His teacher, Mr. Geng Baochang, is willing to give a gift to prove his family’s origin.China’s” collectors”, “cultural relics newspaper”, “cultural relics world” and other major publications are published in a large number of pages of his ceramic articles and works.
In 2009, Mr. Lu Jie was invited to participate in China’s first official “Memories of the Yuan Dynasty-Yuan Dynasty Blue and White Porcelain Culture Exhibition” and “Yuan Blue and White Porcelain and Chinese Culture” Symposium to further advance to professional ceramic scholars.