[Art Gallery] “Landscape Painting” on Blue and White Porcelain

Blue and white landscape painting began in the middle and late Yuan Dynasty, at that time, the process of green and green flowers under glaze was very mature, and its main decoration was pine, bamboo, plum and fish algae, flowers, Yunlong, phoenix, animals, birds and birds, but also painted a small number of drama characters story map.In order to cooperate with the story, with pine, stone, mountain scenery to set off the characters in the picture, belongs to a kind of background landscape.Typical patterns include recent auctions of “ghost valley downhill” blue-and-white cans.Although the painting method on the jar has the traditional Chinese painting style, but in the picture blue and white landscape, just plays the role of setting off the character’s theme.Such as collection in the nanjing museum, “xiaoheyue chase hanxin” plum bottles, trees, rocks, plantains, remote mountains are also set off the protagonist.In the Yuan Dynasty painting there is a “garden lotus pond mandarin duck” picture, but also with yard railings, lake rocks, water grass sets off the main mandarin duck.

This period landscape is a pattern in the non-mainstream period, only play a role as a foil.The reason is related to the design idea of the Yuanqing flower pattern. Because of the aesthetic and demand of the customers, there are many factors of the pattern export.Not many blue-and-white character story map, let us see the Yuan Dynasty constitute elements of landscape painting tree, stone, mountain, water painting, this period should be the initial period of blue-and-white landscape.

In the history of Qing-hua painting in Ming Dynasty, the “official style” took the main position.”Official appearance” is made by the court made of wooden models and drawings, made by porcelain craftsmen.Many designs are decorated by the court painter’s hand hair sample, so that the overall design of the official kiln delicate and complex.In the early and middle period of Ming Dynasty, Jingdezhen’s porcelain industry was centered on imperial kiln factory controlled by court, and the kiln was attached to it.As the blue and white material for the imperial kiln control, the pattern decoration is bound.The landscape painting mainly takes the courtyard lake stone, Shoushan Fuhai for many, the picture simple change few.There were fewer subjects for landscape painting in this period.

First, the courtyard landscape painting.Yong, Xuan period by the rocks, flowers, water form a close-up landscape patterns.Turk Topkabi Palace and Japan’s Takehiro Art Museum of the Yongle “landscape flowers” large picture of lakes and rocks, creek banks, reeds, flowers, bamboo, trees and other plants and gurgling water constitute a garden pattern.Meaning of quiet composition, hair color light elegant blue and white, give people a kind of elegant light, elegant and elegant feeling.The garden stone pattern in the official kiln is not much, the painting method is clear and fresh, completely different from the sea water, but in the pattern the lake stone, the flower, the flowing water layout has the straggling, with the pen slender, has reflected the clear and beautiful bright garden characteristic, has reflected the Jiangnan unique scenery.During this period, the painting methods of lake stone and flowers are basically the same, and the changes are not big. The painting methods are described with small pen and precise and neat, which embodies the characteristics of official painting.But the whole reflects a kind of landscape close-range painting.

The second is the emergence of “abstract” landscape painting.Like mountains and rivers to cloud-like pattern, Shoushan Fuhai pattern for more.The painting of Guanyao’s salt water is usually full of blue and white paintings of objects. The scene is full of rough waves. Each wave and every wave has a rolling movement, which sets off the majestic and stable peaks that stand in the midst of the rolling waves.This sea painting was inherited from the Yuan Dynasty, but the composition was more rational and the painting was more delicate.The cloud and gas patterns of sea water in Yongchun and Xuan period reached the peak of precision painting and permeated the art and painting temperament of imperial court.Such as the nanjing museum collection of the sea three-foot Xuande furnace, is a typical work.Minyao Shoushan Fuhai pattern composition is more simple, abstract painting method and meaning.Orthodoxy, Jingtai, Tianshun period common “with Qin visit friends” figure pattern, the landscape in the picture, balcony, courtyard often in the cloud and fog illusion.The appearance of “abstract” landscape pattern already contains freehand elements.

In the morning and mid-day, the landscape of the folk kiln is dominated by simple drawing method, and the courtyard lake stone becomes an indispensable part of the courtyard scenery.A few strokes of the lake stone, yard railings, flowers and plants, simple composition.In addition to being limited by the technique of “double-hook flat painting”, this painting is actually an original freehand style, which laid a foundation for the literati’s freehand painting in the late Ming Dynasty.

The development of blue-and-white landscape painting, in the late Ming Dynasty appeared a turning point.Before the 35th year of Wanli (1607), it was the official kiln that occupied the dominant position.After this, the decline of official kilns, the rapid increase in exports to European markets and the expansion of domestic markets have greatly stimulated the production of civilian kilns.People’s kilns are produced in large quantities unfettered, occupying an absolute advantage in Jingdezhen.Out of the “official-like” restrictions, the kiln green decorative patterns, tends to be fresh and full of folk flavor.The porcelain-making artists used the painting style of the calligraphers and painters at that time to make a fundamental change in the appearance of porcelain paintings, and rarely continued to use the traditional patterns of the Ming Dynasty official kilns.

At that time, painting style was concise, simple, vivid, bold and unrestrained, and the development of Chinese painting in the same period complement each other, draw lessons from each other and influence each other.Landscape painting pursuit of artistic conception, deliberately reflect people’s inner activities and emotional needs, the picture not only to “good-looking”, but also “taste.”In the composition of the layout to the meaning.Qinghua landscape painting in the late Ming Dynasty has appeared in the use of the painting “three distant methods”, the scene is far and near high and low, there are scattered, the picture is well-matched, more full of life flavor.In the pen more bold and spiteful, line free and easy, a few pen on the landscape of the small landscape description of endless interest.In the late Ming Dynasty, there appeared many freehand landscapes, such as” Qiu Jiang Shan Jing “,” Qiu Jiang Du “,” Lin Jiang Yin Yong “,” Jiang Shan Autumn “,” Shan Lin Chun Yan “,” Yan Fei Chun Xiao “and so on.In some landscape paintings, the combination of poetry, books, painting and printing is fascinating.This kind of painting subject uses the Tang poetry picture scenery, cooperates with the picture to use the official script inscriptions, this kind of poem matches the painting method, is the late Ming Dynasty literati and the culture, the art amalgamation careful conception, also is the civilian kiln owner and the literati union one kind of expression, and has deeply affected the entire Qing Dynasty porcelain painting.

In Jiajing period, a landscape pattern with Taoist fairyland style was popular, which was the true portrayal of Emperor Chongxin’s Taoism.Jiajing Emperor ignored the government and was infatuated with Taoist fairies. There were also a lot of fairy stories on the decoration of porcelain.Not much landscape painting, also tends to “meaning is auspicious” meaning.Turkey’s Topkabi Palace collection of “Fu Hai Shoushan Wonderland” disk, the whole picture painting Shenshan, temples, pagodas, fairy grass, trees in the ethereal fairyland.This kind of mental dust picture, composition is simple, writing pen, writing pen are fast, there is a clear style of freehand painting.It is worth mentioning that the Wanli period, a large number of drawing patterns, this pattern is not only with the blue and white lines drawing patterns, and lines fill the contents of the patterns, a double-hook flat painting.The new painting method forms a new painting style, which has an influence on the later blue-and-white painting method.

In the period of Chongzhen and Shunzhi, the theme of the matching painting of poetry has typical humanistic painting style.Chongzhen 12 years (1639) blue-and-white landscape like a leg bottle, the picture on the mountains, cloud-shrouded mountains, close-up in the forest a literati independent bridge.In the picture blank, title zhu xi “spring day” poem: “win the day to look for fang sushuibin, boundless scenery for a new moment. The leisure to realize the east wind, all the purple and red is always spring.” Poetic painting scenery, the full of fun.In the period of Shunzhi, the theme of the matching painting of Tang poetry was welcomed by the literati. In 1653, the Shanghai Museum had hidden Shunzhi 10 years. It was the whole landscape painted on the vase of green flowers. It was Chen Yu of the Tang Dynasty. Yin Yin sent word Wulingke, Mo quoted the world to each other. “Chongzhen and Shunzhi blue and white landscape painting can be seen, design and drawing, greatly improve the quality of porcelain painting.”The painting on the porcelain of the official kiln is mostly made by Jingdezhen porcelain tyre, and then designed and painted by the court painter.

I once had a broken bowl, bowl heart painted high mountain flow map, the bottom line for the “virtual valley home hide” four words.The virtual valley, the Qing Dynasty famous painter also, its landscape, flowers, all fine, has a distinct artistic personality.This picture of mountain and river, from composition to line, quite a virtual valley painting.I guess the bowl for virtual valley in jingdezhen no doubt custom-made, on which the painting may be virtual valley own drawing, may also be provided by virtual valley drawings, please high-quality ceramic artist painted from.There are a few cups for the tire porcelain, crystal clear, the top of the painting landscape, for the “Hu Gongshou painting” four characters.Hu Gongshou is also a painter of the Qing Dynasty, landscape elegant, bold and unrestrained, is the best friend of virtual valley.

Thus, in the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties, some exquisite blue-and-white porcelain paintings are obviously the result of the close combination of literati painters and porcelain kiln craftsmen.With the help of Chinese ink and wash painting techniques, Jingdezhen painters have painted the continuous landscape on the porcelain, which has brought the porcelain decoration into a new realm.

Qinghua landscape painting “peak” period in Kangxi, the porcelain production took a series of reforms, porcelain industry rapid development.Kangxi 19 years (1680), Jingdezhen officially restored the Imperial Kiln Factory.At the same time, it continued to implement the system of “government-made and civilian-fired”, which promoted each other and made porcelain industry develop vigorously.Kangxi’s unique blue-and-white porcelain occupies a very important position in the history of Chinese ceramics.In particular, after 19 years of Kangxi products, the quality of technology significantly improved.Kangxi blue-and-white porcelain in the painting techniques, changed the outline, flat painting on the method of color, the use of “water separation.”Composition, broke through the previous generation of Guanyao map-based shackles, the picture is full of rich flavor of life, Kangxi landscape painting is no exception, created a lot of exquisite works.

In the landscape painting of the Qingguan kiln, the achievements of the Kangxi Dynasty were also the highest.The creation and use of the five-color water-sharing painting makes the blue-and-white flower have the foundation to express the landscape in depth.In particular, the use of Zhejiang blue and white materials from the “water selection method” improved to “calcination method”, blue and white hair color is very bright with a strong sense of emerald.rich in painting

Light can show different levels, increased the aesthetic feeling of the picture.In the painting method, the painting method of the Southern Song Dynasty’s courtyard style was adopted, and the painting method of the “agriculture map” was fully used.Qinghua landscape painting in the Qing Dynasty was influenced by the popular style of “four kings” at that time.

In the Kangxi Dynasty, the blue-and-white patterns of the kiln were widely associated with the real life, reflecting the appearance of a large number of patterns reflecting the thoughts and customs of life at that time.Its landscape painting does not adhere to one style, free to play out the popular folk art style, full of natural, simple and rich flavor of life.In painting techniques, the “water-sharing method” and drawing lessons from the focus perspective of Western painting, so that the picture has a sense of hierarchy.The composition is diverse, the picture is lively, the vision is wide.Painting style, showing the late Ming and early Qing landscape painter’s brushwork, fresh, beautiful artistic conception.Mountain stone description, more use of the “axe chap” method, in the blue and white color under the baking, give people a new sense of feeling.

The biggest characteristic of landscape painting in Kangxi period is the strong three-dimensional sense, the distant mountains near the scenery, the mountains yin and yang, the scattered, there is deep visual effect and a distinct sense of hierarchy.The blue and white flowers use the color to be suitable, the composition pays attention to the artistic conception beauty, the figure often puts in the landscape, the whole picture gives the person a kind of bright and elegant feeling.Kangxi Qinghua landscape ink Dan flavor, the literati painting in the form of blue and white, in the porcelain carrier displayed, for the expression of porcelain painting techniques to expand space.The special achievement of Kangxi Qinghua landscape works shows that Qing Dynasty Qinghua landscape painting reached its heyday.

The blue-and-white landscape painting after Emperor Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty has been greatly reduced.Composition, brushwork, color setting and other techniques have been much less than the Kangxi period, its artistic effect can not be the same as the Kangxi Qinghua landscape, replaced by powder enamel and light-colored mountain.

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