Gao Ashen: the key points of the identification of blue and white porcelain in the middle of the Ming Dynasty
Key points of identification of blue-and-white porcelain in the middle of Ming Dynasty
In the middle of Ming Dynasty, it refers to Chenghua (1465–1487), Hongzhi (1488–1505) and Zhengde (1506–1521).
After the “blank period” (also called “dark period”) of the three dynasties of Ming orthodoxy, Jingtai and Tianshun, the Chinese blue-and-white porcelain came to Chenghua and JingdezhenImperial Kiln FactoryThe production of porcelain was fully restored.Therefore, the mid-Ming is an important period in China’s ceramic history, porcelain quality is very high, known as” blue-and-white porcelain revitalization period. ”
The main varieties of Chenghua blue-and-white porcelain in the Ming Dynasty were plates, bowls, furnaces, cans, cups, saucers, pots, bottles and some stationery.In the canister and cup class, when several days the canister andchicken bowlMost famous.Hongzhi dynasty in the middle of the ming dynasty, most of the instruments inherited from the previous dynasty, occasionally see a new style.Zhengde was in the middle and late period of the Ming Dynasty, and the blue-and-white porcelain appeared in various forms.earlier periodChenɡ Hua,HiroharuSimilar to the late and gradually changed before the delicate, slender, small style, the body is slightly heavier than the former, and a large piece of utensils appeared.Therefore, Zhengde not only in the shape, more in the blue and white materials, is a link to the next era.
Chenghua, Hongzhi and Zhengde
The Ming Dynasty lasted 23 years, the style of the blue-and-white porcelain can be roughly divided into two periods: first, the early stage of the formation, the blue-and-white porcelain decoration and modeling by the Xuande kiln is very big, that is, there are a lot of decorative and instrumental forms of the porcelain, the imitation Xuande Dynasty, This has been confirmed from the excavated objects in the same strata as the ruins of Longzhu Royal Kiln Factory in Jingdezhen in recent years.Second, some of the light color, small-sized blue-and-white bowl, cup, including colorful urn, bowl, calyx and other round light things, most of the later works of the Chenghua Dynasty.The recent spring auction at Sotheby’s in Hong Kong with more than 280 million Hong Kong-bought Chenghua colorful chicken cup, people may still remember!The excavations tell us that “the so-called delicate and delicate style of Chenghua was formed in the late period of Chenghua”[See the Yanhuang Art Museum’s compilation of “Yuan Ming Guan Kiln Porcelain unearthed in Jingdezhen” Cultural Relics Publishing House,1999 edition].This kind of porcelain, mostly with thin embryo, glaze white, blue and white light elegant as the main characteristic, become the classic work of the blue and white porcelain.
In the early period of Chenghua, Qinghua still used the material of “Su Ma Li Qing”, and the method of writing was the sameXuan DeThe official kiln green flower, uses the small brush touch.As a result, the blue and white color, in the blue and white decorative brush Road, with a thick light layer and dark brown crystal spots.In the middle and late period of Chenghua, because the material of “Su Qing” was cut off, the cobalt material of green flower produced in Leping County of Jiangxi Province was changed into the cobalt material of green flower————————————————————————————Blue light elegant, blue in the flash ash, gives a soft, thorough feeling.Since then, there is no Yongle Xuande “Su Qing” material of that color and the appearance of blue-black crystal spots.Equal green, suitable for the painting and rendering of characters and various subjects, thus enhancing the decorative effect of porcelain.Therefore, the characters on Chenghua blue-and-white porcelain are common, which is different from Yongle Xuande blue-and-white porcelain.
HiroharuFor 18 years, its blue-and-white porcelain inherits the style of the former dynasty, its shape and material are almost not very different from that of the Chenghua period.In fact, as long as the grasp of the main points, the two Korean artifacts or can be easy to distinguish, at least in the composition of the main lines, Chenghua and Hongzhi, each with its own unique features, and even clear at a glance.
During the Hongzhi period, the blue and white materials used were basically the same as those used in the modernization period, and they were still made in ChinaPinɡ HeqinɡCobalt, gray-blue color, color has a light, but also a rich color.
MasanoriThe Qing Dynasty lasted 16 years. In the early period, most of the Qinghua materials were produced by Leping, Jiangxi Province, with a lighter color.Most of the kiln with Jiangxi Shanggao County real estate, such as the gravel green (also known as” no name “), blue-and-white color with ash or flash ash.contractPinɡ HeqinɡIn contrast, the color of pebble blue slightly gray, but stable color, but also a few of the objects hair color deep, there is halo with brown iron rust spots.The late Zhengde, the use of “Hui-Qing” material, bright color, blue in the pan-micro-purple, and after Jiajing similar to the green flowers.
Ming Cheng-hua, Hongzhi, Zhengde three-dynasty artifacts, due to the elegant color of blue and white multi-posture, patterns and patterns on the victory to clear, appear bright, so in the late Ming and Qing Dynasty enjoyed a reputation.
“Chenghua has no big tools”, which is one of the characteristics of Chenghua porcelain in its modelling.Although most of the early Chenghua Xuande instrument as a copy, but the body of the creation of the body is not thick, and the shape of the instrument is not big, so most of the handed-down products within a foot size, rarely have Xuande when the big tools.And Hongzhi Dynasty, occasionally see some large pieces of tools.At the time of Zhengde, the majority of the fetal bodies were heavy, which was obviously different from the previous dynasties, and there were some production, such asMei PinɡHe’s the one who’s been out of here,gourd bottleA large object with a heavy weight of such a shape.
Before the formation, there is a pen on the painting characteristics, resulting in lines with the pattern of the outline of the cyan, often mixed into one.There are two pen techniques, rendering more layers, the outline is clear, and there are obvious changes with the former, this is one of the characteristics of the times.
Accomplishment:1. They are all six-character two-letter money, no four-character money.2. All the categories are regular script, but no seal script is found.Chenghua blue-and-white script has six-character double-line circle and six-character two-line two-way line.There is a line of six words from the right to the left of the line and a single “day” and other words, regardless of the double-loop or double-frame line, the figure is generally close to the letter, unlike Xuande’s double-circle and the word far apart, there is a certain distance between the words.Double-frame line often appears to be not neat enough, lines are not vertical enough, the color is different.The imitations of the Qing and the Republic of China did not have this feature.Qing Dynasty Kang, Yongshi imitation money, with the original gap is very large.At the end of last century, modern imitations were more biased.Really write well, write lifelike, appear in Jingdezhen ten years ago on high-imitation articles.3. Font “ancient and poor”, “fat”, the use of Tibetan-style pen.Good use of rough pen, the font soft to see the hard, round and ancient roughshod.With 10 times magnifying glass, the blue color of the font appears to sink, around the mist like cover.The phenomenon is rare for forgeries.Minyao Qinghua has a book, “Daming Chenghua” and “Daming New Year” four-character two-line script, as well as” Fu “inscriptions.”Fu” inscriptions, beginning in Chenghua, the era is extremely strong.And Hongwu, Yongle “blessing” inscription, all down to the heart of the bowl.
The characteristics of the mid-Ming Dynasty’s embellishment and tire glaze
1. The blue-and-white string of the two-sided line near the bottom of the porcelain is heavy in color, while the above string is light.(Note: Mr. Geng Baochang)
2. The inner edge of a can or censer, sometimes decorated with one or two blue-and-white strings.
3. The shoulder and shin (the part near the base of the lower abdomen) show variegated lotus leaf patterns and simplified lotus leaf patterns.This kind of auxiliary decoration, usually, is either Chenghua or Hongzhi.However, the patterns of lotus-shaped and simplified lotus-shaped patterns appeared on the shoulders and shins, which is not Hongzhi’s virtue.
4. The tibia is often decorated with screw-dimple-shaped lotus-petal patterns, while the cover-face embellishment mostly corresponds to the auxiliary embellishment of the shoulder or shin.This kind of screw dimple-shaped lotus-leaf pattern edge decoration, Mingjingtai, Tianshun appeared, the formation of popular.
5. Chenghua often imitate the Xuande decorative patterns, so more Kuyt dragon, as well as vanilla dragon.In the late Ming Dynasty, this pattern of Ming Dynasty is rare, even if there are, but also vulgar.To the Qing Kangxi Dynasty, and see the image of delicate, vivid Kuiguan dragon and vanilla dragon imitation (this and Kang Yongqian like to simulate Daming porcelain).
6. The shoulders are often decorated with a week’s blue-and-white curved edge, which is often seen on the jars and bottles in the middle of Ming Dynasty.
7. Children’s plays in Ming Dynasty.In the middle of Ming Dynasty, the main characters were usually 4-16 people, most of whom were field scenery.Late Ming or Qing Dynasty, the background is mostly courtyard, children generally 2 to 3 people.
8. The figure pattern on the Chenghua porcelain, which occupies the proportion of the picture, is usually larger, and the painted lines are rounded.For example, the face of the figure is goose egg-shaped, clothes drawn into a circular arc, soft stone lines without concave-convex feeling, some if eggs.In addition, the composition is full, the landscape layout is well-proportioned.The proportion of the figure pattern in Hongzhi is usually small, and the scenery is empty and far-reaching.The figure pattern of Zhengde time, the picture has the big also has the small, the scenery appears the symmetry and the layout is stable.
9. Chenghua is decorated with Sanskrit (ancient writing in India). Most of the objects are temple vessels, and the contents are mostly Buddhist scriptures, incantations and so on.The purpose of the spell is to banish disaster.It is customary to use Arabic as the subject matter, and the content of the text is mainly a description of the use of auspicious words, proverbs, Koran and objects.
10. Cross pestle: The double-headed pestle crosses into a cross shape, which is very popular during the formation period.According to documents such as” Li Chao Shi Lu “,” Ming Shi Lu “and” Ming Shi Shi Shi Shi “and” Ming Shi Shi Shi “, during the later period of the period of Chenghua, the Beijing Master Dajian Temple, the Daxing Law Association in the Palace, and the appearance of writing Sanskrit, Tibetan and related subjects related to Buddhist activities, “This is related to the late Chenghua Emperor of the Constitutional Patriarchs’ cool Buddhism” (see “Sun Yingzhou’s Ceramic World” in the Palace Museum).
11. The bubbles in the official glaze are fine, even and sparse.This is a very important feature.Don’t neglect it when identifying, lest you miss it or lose it.
The base of 12 objects, with the body of the glaze color often inconsistent.The base foot glaze surface is white, the body glaze color is white in brilliant blue.This characteristic begins in Chenghua and is not seen by the former dynasty.
13. The fetal body of the Ming Dynasty is white and soft, and the enamel is plump and fat, which is translucent.Some objects, in the light of the perspective of the body invisible body out of a light red meat.But not absolutely!When synthesizing a complete picture of an object, avoid all ten.
14. The tire of Chenghua porcelain is regular, the mark of transverse joint of body is not obvious, the plate has the phenomenon of collapse (collapse), and the circle of bowl and plate is straight and high.The official kiln blue-and-white porcelain is divided into two kinds of bottom application glaze and astringent bottom, with the glaze in the majority.Although Chenghua kilns are not as fine as the official kilns of the same period, most of them are of superior quality, white and delicate in texture, fine in degree of porcelain and neat in painting, which was most prominent in the Ming Dynasty, or even more than the official organs of the late Ming Dynasty.Hongzhi folk kiln painting has more for a smear method.Zhengde kiln body thick weight, uneven thickness, horizontal seam marks are obvious, the circle of the bowl is straight, higher.
15. In the middle of Ming Dynasty, the bottom of the kiln was almost mostly astringent. Since Jiajing, most of them were glazed bottom.
16. In the Ming Dynasty, there were mostly bamboo-like scratches, especially in the inner part and the astringent bottom, which were left when the blank was repaired.