Blue and White Porcelain and Its Artistic Achievements in Ming Dynasty Jingdezhen Civil Kiln (I) General Situation of Civil Kiln Porcelain
China’s ancient ceramics production has the official kiln and the civilian kiln, the official kiln specialized production imperial goods and tribute goods, the civilian kiln production supplies.From the history of ceramic development, the five generations of Wuyue State Qian’s regime, has ordered Yue kiln to burn the common people are not allowed to use imperial products, this porcelain was called “secret color” porcelain.But the strict distinction between the official kilns and the folk kilns began in the Song Dynasty.(Yin Liuzhai said porcelain: “‘Day:” Since the Song Dynasty, there are official kiln, civilian kiln, official kiln by the supervision of the production, in order to enter the top, to reward also. Folk kiln also known as passenger and goods, common to the people. “To the Yuan Dynasty for the kiln industry once implemented” life is Jia, no life is stop “system.
By the Ming Dynasty, with the recovery and development of the economy, Jingdezhen porcelain industry quickly flourished and became the national porcelain industry center.At that time, a large number of kiln, porcelain fired the number of increasing year by year.Under the circumstances that the imperial kiln factory can’t complete the duty of tribute, according to the regulation of “having orders for tribute, no orders for stopping”, a system of “government-made civilian burning” has been set up, in which craftsmen and high-quality raw materials with high-tech in the kiln are chosen to burn with the official kiln, that is, the official kiln orders products to the civilian kiln, Or the official kiln out of the sample, produced by the kiln.Therefore, the task of the kiln is more difficult and complex, not like the simple production of the kiln.The imperial articles produced by the official kilns are very delicate and are often recorded and handed down as the representative works of the time.There are few monographs about the artistic achievements of folk kiln porcelain.In fact, compared with the porcelain of the official kiln and the folk kiln, the porcelain of the folk kiln also had many new improvements and creations in the porcelain-making technique in the middle and late Ming Dynasty.In recent years, we have improved our understanding of the blue-and-white porcelain of the Ming Dynasty’s folk kilns by sorting out the blue-and-white porcelain of the Palace Museum, and this paper tries to discuss the art achievements of the blue-and-white porcelain of the Ming Dynasty’s people’s kilns in Jingdezhen.
1. Overview of the Porcelain of the People’s Kiln
The Ming Dynasty folk kiln continued to produce blue-and-white porcelain on the basis of the production of Yuan Dynasty.Because of the setting of imperial kiln factory in early Ming Dynasty, the products of official kiln and civilian kiln have their own distinct characteristics.According to Jingdezhen Ceramics Historical Draft, after the middle period of Ming Dynasty, the supply of porcelain was divided into two categories: one is” imperial porcelain “(imperial articles);One kind is” the part limits porcelain implement “(appreciates the present product). The official kiln is used to burn the part-limited porcelain, while the imperial task is carried out by means of “the official and the civilian burning”. Due to the continuous improvement of the production technology of the kiln, the quality of the porcelain produced by the kiln is in line with the products of the official kiln. Moreover, it is very strict to select the most exquisite products as the imperial porcelain in the production of the folk kilns. In addition, civilian kiln production is civilian porcelain. Combined with the analysis of the natural objects of the Palace Museum, there are several kinds of blue-and-white porcelain ware produced by the people’s kilns: a large number of people’s daily necessities and funerals; a second kind of sacrificial vessels in temples; a third kind of private utensils fixed for burning; and a fourth kind of household utensils used by palace attendants.
First, talk about the people’s daily necessities and funerals.The blue-and-white porcelain of the Ming Dynasty was unearthed many times, but many cultural relics were lost and some were sold to foreign countries in boxes because of the corruption of the government before liberation.After the liberation of the Palace Museum collected and bought many ancient civilian blue-and-white porcelain.
This kind of blue-and-white porcelain is simple in shape, free and unrestrained in decoration, with more varieties of dishes and lavatories, followed by bottles, cans, furnaces and so on.Because it is a folk article, most of them have no dynastic knowledge, and some of them have good words and money.In the past twenty years, many blue-and-white porcelain ware of Ming Dynasty folk kilns have been found in Jiangxi, Jiangsu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Sichuan, Jilin and Anhui.Some are unearthed in tombs, some are cellars, some are relics found in kiln sites or ruins of old cities. These material materials provide circumstantial evidence for the study of blue-and-white porcelain ware in Ming Dynasty kilns and the solution to the problem of broken generations.By comparing the materials found in these archaeological excavations with the collection of the Palace Museum, we can see the general situation of the production of blue-and-white porcelain ware in the Ming Dynasty, and we can also see the difference between the daily necessities produced by the kilns and those produced by the official kilns.Such as the Hongwu porcelain unearthed at the Ming Palace Museum in Nanjing, the curly blue grass pattern plate unearthed at the tomb of Mingjingtai in Jingdezhen, Jiangxi Province, the blue and white flower pattern pot unearthed at the three-year tomb of Chenghua in Jiangxi Province, and the blue and white twined flower cover pot unearthed at the tomb of Zhengde in the thirteenth year. Similar objects can be found in the collection of the Palace Museum, such as the Hongwu Blue and White Curly Disc, Xuande Green and Branched Cans (Figure 4), etc.
Through the comparative analysis, we can see that the characteristics of the blue-and-white porcelain ware in the folk kilns before the middle period of Ming Dynasty are as follows. Blue-and-white tone gray, neither Yongle, Xuande period blue-and-white tone of the faint sense of dispersion, nor the elegant sense of the period;On the fetal quality is also relatively rough, generally is the sandy bottom no glaze, only a few of the body is full of glaze.The porcelain of the folk kilns of this period is not so high and firm and exquisite as the porcelain of the official kilns, and the decorative aspect has no similarity with the porcelain of the official kilns.But it does not rule out individual works of excellence.After the mid-Ming Dynasty, the production of the blue-and-white porcelain of the kiln had a remarkable change, whether it was blue-and-white color, decorative decoration, embryo glaze has made great progress, and even can be compared with the products of the official kiln.In addition, a large number of blue-and-white porcelain ware appeared in the folk tombs of the Ming Dynasty, which showed that the custom of using porcelain as a funeral article was very popular at that time.
The second is the sacred vessels in the temple.The lIt custom of sacrificing china as a sacrificial vessel to a god or ancestor to express reverence and pray for blessing is not only popular among the people, but also by the feudal ruling class and even the emperor.The literature records that both the Ming Xuanzong and the Shizong had ordered Raozhou Prefecture of Jiangxi Province to burn sacrificial vessels.”Ming Xuanzong Shi Lu” in the record;”In the Ministry of Industry, Raozhou Prefecture, Jiangxi Province, the prefectural hall of the Emperor Taizong several feasts, Renzong emperor and banquet white magnetic sacrificial utensils.””Da Ming Hui Cian” on the date: “Jiajing nine years, the four suburbs of the tomb porcelain I round green hills, square hills yellow, sun altar red.. Moon altar white, Raozhou, Jiangxi, such as burning solution.
History of Ming Dynasty: The History of Food and Goods: A New Sacrifice for the Seven Mausoleums in the Sixteenth Year of Jiajing.From the Forbidden City’s old collection, there are many fine white glaze, blue glaze, yellow glaze and so on.A large number of single-color glaze utensils, all of them are the official kiln products used in the palace sacrifice, they are obviously different from the civilian kiln products.
The sacrificial utensils produced in the Ming Dynasty were mostly blue-and-white porcelain, which was rough in production.For example, in the 33rd year of Wanli, Qinghua Eight Immortals figure pattern furnace, Chongzhen eight years blue and white cloud dragon pattern furnace, the two furnaces of the mouth or body are written with blue and white sacrifice ancestors pray for good luck.In addition, there are twenty-three years of Jiajing flower cloud dragon pattern plate, Wanli forty-four years green flower figure supply, Wanli forty-six years green flower figure water plate, these objects are thick and heavy body, blue and white color gray not fresh, the body of the instrument has the age of recognition, to the object of the dating played a role in supporting role.The kiln also produces fine sacrificial vessels, such as the blue-and-white figure tripod furnace (plate 4), which is barrel-shaped and is decorated with pine, crane, bamboo, deer and characters, and is lined with flowers, trees and houses;Blue and white tone elegant, decorative layout is relatively sparse, and porcelain painting delicate, bright enamel.This furnace has no knowledge, in the past has been designated as Zhengde when objects, Mr. Geng Baochang research and appraisal should be Hongzhi period Wenzhi period of the production of fine works.
The third is a privately-fired vessel.In the Ming Dynasty, there were many private fixed-fired vessels in the blue-and-white porcelain of the kiln. Such utensils usually had money recognition, the name of the burned person was recorded, the symbol was written or had a good word, and there were also those with dry money.The making of fixed-burning utensils is fine. Most of them are from Jiajing to late Ming Dynasty.Their appearance shows that the imperial kiln in the late Ming Dynasty was unable to strictly control the civilian kiln.People’s kiln broke through the various shackles of the official kiln, in the burning technology has improved and innovation, began to have the ability for some upper-class figures or literati fixed firing porcelain.Such utensils such as” Wanli nine years of Li Ya set with “blue and white Yunhe sea animal pattern tripod furnace (cover), Wanji Tingzi created “Qing Hua Lian pattern plate (the heart has” Xuan Yin Tang” four characters), “Mi Shi Yin” blue flower vase (picture plate 4), “Yan Bo good system” blue flower figure plate.· f-meter Shi Yin “is the Palace Museum’s treasures, a tall and beautiful, blue-and-white color elegant, clear, glazed, one side of the outer mouth of the blue-and-white writing” Tianqi rice hidden system “seven characters.
In the Wanli period, there was also a kind of fixed burning vessel with “Wang Fu” style.The “royal palace” was the residence of the feudal emperors to their descendants or imperial relatives. All over the king’s house in the most German town also ordered to burn porcelain. According to the history of Chinese ceramics, the blue-and-white porcelain produced by these kilns is a fine product for the use of the landlords and bureaucrats in the middle and upper classes. In 1979, I saw a blue-and-white-covered jar in Guizhou Provincial Museum. It is beautiful in shape, beautiful in pattern, full-body for tortoise back lotus flower pattern and sea water miscellaneous treasure. The decoration method is quite novel, the pot body has the blue ground white flower, also has the white ground blue flower, takes full advantage of the blue and white each other’s artistic effect, causes the pattern decoration to be more fresh. This pot can be compared with the blue-and-white porcelain produced in the Wanli Dynasty. It is actually the best of the custom-burned vessels. This shows that this period Jingdezhen people’s kiln burning level and the official kiln compared to no difference. In the collection of the Palace Museum, there are “made in Wanli year,” “made in Changfu”, “good tools of Hao Fu,” etc. Wang Fu ordered burning vessels, made in fine.
The fourth kind is the articles of daily use for house attendants.In the collection of the Palace Museum, there are thousands of blue-and-white baby costumes, such as those in Sanskrit, and the common features of these objects are dark blue-and-white colors, unattractive ones, many holes in the mouth, and even oily ones on most of the utensils. Apparently, it was used by lower-class figures in the palace at that time.This kind of porcelain is quite different from the fine products of the official kilns used by the imperial nobles, but it also has its unique features.For example, the blue and white baby plays the anon (Figure 1), the outer wall is covered with patterns, the picture seven are in the game, the children, the posture is different: Some horse riding, some drum, some flag raising, some hold a vase, some hold a lotus leaf, and some dance, the rest of the scene is decorated with railings, flowers and plants.The children in the porcelain painting are all head big body long, wears the long dress to throw the sleeve, lively and naive.Baby-play is the traditional decoration of porcelain in China, which was widely used in Jiajing and Wanli periods.For example, it is often seen in the porcelain of the Ming Dynasty that the flowers are twined and the lotus patterns are decorated with characters and patterns on the plate.The content of the text is generally scriptural or auspicious.According to the History of the Ming Dynasty, God could read and recite scriptures at the age of six, so it is not surprising that there are a large number of Sanskrit-bearing porcelain in the palace.
In the palace, there is also a part of the daily necessities of 22.5 caliber, high l0, full 8.8 cm of the large blue and white plate, most of which belongs to the Wanli period objects, its decorative style has a strong kiln style.It has many characteristics, such as: (1) the bottom is different from the bottom of the plate, there is a very thick jade base, and there is a common type of ring foot or thick flat.(2) Most of the copies of the “Daming Chenghua year” are made up of Jiajing or Xuande. (3) Blue and white colors are bright, as if painted with pearl materials. From this kind of market, it can be seen that the green porcelain of the Kangxi Dynasty in the Qing Dynasty was bright and green, “divide water” techniques, jade wall bottom and other characteristics from the Ming Dynasty Wanli period began to appear. In the Wanli period, there were more copies of the Qing-hua porcelain in the kiln. This shows that the Cheng-hua porcelain was very valuable in the Wanli period. It is clear that many records about the “value of 100,000 yuan” in the Ming and Qing dynasties are in line with the historical situation at that time.