An Interpretation of the Picture-meaning Stories in the Blue and White Porcelain
Ancient Chinese blue-and-white porcelain painting decoration elegant, porcelain bottom of the text, patterns of a variety of people, there are landscape characters, dragon and phoenix flowers and birds, fish and insects, animals, poetry, bogu, and so on.The design and style of each period have distinct characteristics of the times.Here are a few blue-and-white ware and porcelain plates to interpret the meaning of blue-and-white porcelain.
Peach and Li Garden for Spring Night Feast
One of Kangxi’s blue and white pens (Figure 1, Figure 2) and one of Kangxi’s blue and white mallet bottles (Figure 3, Figure 4) draw the same theme:
Peach and Li Garden for Spring Night Feast.This is the painting meaning of the famous prose “Taoliyuan Preface of Spring and Night Feast”. The author is Li Bai, a great poet. The preface is about 21 years after Kaiyuan (734 AD), located in Zhaoshan Peach Flower Rock, Anlu City, Hubei Province.The content describes the author and his cousins gathered in his hometown in the peach garden to drink poetry, to chat about the joy of heaven and earth.The theme narrates the life is short, when does the pleasure in time, expresses one kind of open-minded feelings.Both pieces of porcelain have written the full text of “Peach Li Garden Preface for Spring and Night Feast”.
The Preface of Peach and Li Garden in Spring Night Feast
The man of heaven and earth, the man of all things, the man of time, the traveller of hundreds of generations.And floating like a dream, for happy geometry?The ancients could not hold a candle to the night travel, well-thought, the Yangchun called me to smoke the scenery, the block fake my article.Peach plum garden, preface to the happy things.All of them are well-connected.We sing songs and enjoy ourselves alone.The reward is not there, but the talk is clear.To open the Qiong banquet to sit flowers, flying feathers and drunk moon.”If there is no good work, how is it given to you?”If a poem fails, it shall be punished according to the number of golden grains of wine.
The main idea of this article is: Heaven and earth are the guest houses of all things, and time is the passer-by of hundreds of generations.Life is floating like a dream, how many happy days can there be?The ancients took the candle, in the night play, is indeed for a reason, not to mention this warm spring with beautiful scenery to attract us, writing is a large piece of beautiful articles.The party is now in the fragrant garden of peach and plum, talking about the joys of brotherhood.Every brother is clever, and he has the talent of Xie Huilian.Everyone sings poetry, but I can’t be ashamed to compare it with Xie Kang.Quietly enjoying the spring night scenery is not finished, and then turn to quiet talk and elegant.Set out a luxurious banquet, sitting in the middle of the flowers, wine glasses frequent, drunk in the moonlight.Without good poetry, how can you express your elegant feelings?If a poem is not made, according to the precedent of Jingu Garden, three drinks.
Jingu Garden is located in the northwest of Luoyang, Henan Province. It is the villa of the rich Shi Chong in the Western Jin Dynasty.There must have been a rule in the gathering of literati that they could not write poetry and punish wine.Xie Huilian was a writer in the Southern Song Dynasty. He was able to write at the age of 10, and was a brilliant writer.Xie Kangle was also a poet in Song Dynasty of the Southern Dynasty. He was the forefather of the landscape poetry, and his landscape poetry achieved the highest achievement.Li Bai in the preface with praise of the tone mentioned two thanks, is actually self-abasement speech.
Both of these porcelain paintings are wonderful, and the composition of the pen-holder and the mallet-bottle, though roughly the same, is of interest to each other.There were five people sitting on the desk, one of whom should be Li Bai. He held out three fingers and said, “No poetry, no wine!” There were pens, ink, ink, ink and ink on the table. One of them, probably unable to write a poem, turned to pick up the boy and pour the wine, The other several people all “the candle has the heart to also cherish the farewell, to shed tears for others to the dawn”.
Zhaojun’s thought of hometown
This is the Beijing Yuan porcelain collector Mr. Zhang Qingyu’s collection of a Yuan Qinghua remnant (Figure 5), a heart-to-heart painting of a woman playing musical instruments.Mr. Qingyu said that this woman is Wang Zhaojun, Wang Zhaojun in the moonless night lit candles playing the music of homesickness.The name of this picture should be called “Zhaojun homesickness map”.
Wang Zhaojun was born in 52 B. C. in Baoping Village, Zigui County, South County (now Xingshan County, Hubei Province).Zhaojun natural beauty, wisdom and unusual, Qin Qi calligraphy and painting, everything, “Emei can not find the world, can make flowers shy in the forest.”Zhaojun’s unique talent and appearance spread to the capital.In 36 B. C., Emperor of the Han Dynasty chose the world’s beauties, and Wang Zhaojun was chosen to attend the imperial court in the palace.The beautiful woman who is elected into the palace wants the emperor’s favorite, has bribed the painter Mao Yanshou, asks him to paint his own beautiful some, Wang Zhaojun self-conceited talent and looks are not willing to bribe, Mao then made hands and feet in her portrait, ZhaoJun therefore did not be selected, derogated into the cold palace without the face of the king.In 33 B. C., the leader of the northern Xiongnu (Mongolia plateau area) called Han evil only on his own initiative to come to the Han Dynasty, to the Han court, and asked for peace and kinship, in order to make permanent good.Emperor Yuan of the Han Dynasty summoned the imperial concubines, Wang Zhaojun stepped forward, generous response.At the meeting of Hu Han Xie’s speech, Emperor Yuan first saw Wang Zhaojun, and saw that Zhaojun looks like a fairy can not help but great surprise, did not expect that there is such a beautiful person, want to stay, but it is difficult to break trust, only to reward the release, and personally sent out more than ten miles of Chang ‘an.
After the attack, Zhaojun was given the title of “Ninghu Xuan Shi” (Wang’s wife), the unity and harmony of the Han and Hun ethnic groups, the peace of the State and the people, “the border city Yan closed, Niu Ma Bu Ye, the third no barking police, Li Shu forgot the battle of Gan Ge”, such a scene of peace lasted 50 years.
Language is not clear, living habits are different, Zhaojun homesickness is human nature.The picture shows Zhaojun’s homesickness perfectly with a flower, a stool, a piano and a candle.Some of the details in the picture are worth repeating: a lotus flower adorned on the railing, not a water lotus, but a terracotta plant growing on the Mongolian steppe, which points to the presence of Wang Zhaojun, who plays the main picture, in the Huns;Look at the chair that Wang Zhaojun sits again and the musical instrument that plays is a bit special, the chair that sits is called “Ma Zha”, namely the “Hu bed” of the Huns, nomadic people use this kind of foldable hand-over chair, carry convenient.In the picture, Wang Zhaojun is sitting on the back of the Mazar, may be used by the aristocracy;The instrument played is not like the pipa, but also similar to the pipa, this instrument called the mongolian “fire do not think”.Legend has it that in Zhaojun out of the road, once played immediately the pipa, pipa rapid melody, caused Hu’s curiosity, then Wang Zhaojun’s pipa played bad, Hu people on the imitation of it made a “pipa”, but did not like and rough, since then there is” nothing like “the name.Yu Yan in Song Dynasty wrote that “Wang Zhaojun’s lute is bad and remade by Hu people, and his shape is small, Zhaojun said with a smile: ‘Hun is not like’ (completely unlike the meaning), and now it is’ He Bisi ‘.This is now the “fire do not think”.
In addition, the ancients painted the month, most of the place acacia, and this picture no month only painted the flickering candle, I think this is not a poem: you do not see the ancients have to use candles to send love of the poem, Li Shangyin’s” silk to the end of the spring, wax torch into tears dry “, Luo Ye’s” can hate Lantang away from night, like beads before the drop of tears”, especially Du Mu’s” candles have the heart to farewell, shed tears for people to the day “, it is Wang Zhaojun at this time miss the true portrayal of his hometown.The candlelight in the painting deviates to one side, and Zhaojun’s hand “fire does not think” still has what meaning mystery machine, has to be further discussed.
Source: Universal Collection
2. Some key points of the identification of the authenticity of ancient porcelain from glaze
Glaze is a kind of vitreous layer on the surface of ceramics.The function of glaze layer is to make the ceramic surface clean and beautiful, small water absorption, easy to wash and keep clean.Because the chemical property of glaze is stable and the hardness of glaze is large, the porcelain is durable and resistant to acid, alkali and salt erosion.In addition, the color glaze can also play the role of decoration, making the porcelain beautiful.There are many kinds of ceramic glaze in ancient China, and there are different classification methods according to different standards.According to the composition of glaze, can be divided into lime glaze, feldspar glaze, and so on;According to the firing temperature, can be divided into high-temperature glaze and low-temperature glaze;According to the characteristics of the surface after firing, it can be divided into transparent glaze, opacity glaze, color glaze, lustrous glaze, matt glaze, crystal glaze, glass glaze, open-sheet glaze, kiln-changed glaze and so on.In addition, there are also a variety of glazing methods, such as dipping glaze, dipping glaze, pouring glaze, spraying glaze, hanging glaze, rolling glaze, brushing glaze and so on.
identification of glaze and ware kilns
Ancient ceramic production, the source of glaze materials, the same as the tire soil, is generally in-situ material.Due to the different composition of glaze, as well as the differences in firing temperature, atmosphere in kiln, glazing method and technology, the ceramic products of each region and kiln entrance often form certain characteristics and have distinct characteristics in glaze.If Tang Dynasty Shouzhou kiln porcelain to produce yellow glaze-based, there are also black glaze, tea-leaf glaze and kiln glaze change.Yellow glaze color is different in depth. The glaze shows yellow, wax yellow, eel yellow, yellow green, yellow brown, etc.Adopt dip glaze method to apply glazing, general application glazes less than bottom, the bottom of most utensils and circle foot does not have glaze, often flow glaze phenomenon, appear wax kind mark in the abdomen below the artifact.The glaze layer thickness is uneven, the glaze color is different, the glass texture is strong.Fetal glazes are sometimes not combined closely, and there is a phenomenon of stripping and natural opening.
Ancient porcelain kilns, although some of the production at the same time a variety of glaze-colored products, but generally one or several glaze-colored products are known.Such as Xing kiln, Ding kiln white glaze, Shouzhou kiln yellow glaze, Ru kiln, Southern Song Guan kiln, Yao Zhou kiln, Yue kiln, Longquan kiln blue glaze, building kiln black glaze, Jun kiln sky blue glaze, moon white glaze, rose purple glaze and so on.Some of the glaze characteristics of the kiln mouth, sometimes even more obvious than the characteristics of the tire.Experienced connoisseurs of ancient ceramics sometimes need only take a look at the glaze of the object, and that is, they can generally determine the kiln mouth.Such as earthworms in Jun kiln, wax tear marks and bamboo wire brush marks in Ding kiln, curcuma-colored glaze at the bottom of Yao Zhou kiln in Song Dynasty, these are the key points to identify the porcelain kiln mouth, even the true and false.
Source: Shandong Collection Network
3. It’s not plain.
Plain three-color, for porcelain glaze name, refers to the unglazed on the natural tire, applied green, yellow, tomato purple and firing.First appeared in the Ming Dynasty.In addition, the ceramic world also has a “plain three color porcelain” definition: plain three color porcelain is one of the ceramic glaze color varieties, is based on yellow, green, purple three colors, when often not limited to these three colors, but not red, It is made by using colored glaze to fill the cut pattern in the high-temperature fired plain porcelain tyre and burning it at low temperature.
The “element” of “plain three colors” is not limited to the surface meaning, one means that the device is made of” plain tyres”.In other words, there is the ancient saying that red is the meat color and non-red is the plain color, and the color glaze used by the instrument is mainly “plain color”, which is named after it.
Although plain three colors as one of China’s porcelain varieties, divided by yellow, green, purple-based color, color does not need to be red in this point to be recognized, in the production process, variety and other aspects, ceramic world has not made a clear definition of it.
The three-color porcelain made by Jingdezhen in the Ming Dynasty began in the Chenghua period and flourished in the Zhengde period.The method of making is to first carve the pattern pattern on the porcelain billet of the ware, but after no glaze and high temperature firing of the porcelain, then fill with some kind of colored glaze, then pick out the part of the pattern, fill with all kinds of colors needed, and finally after the second firing at low temperature.
In the period of Kangxi, plain three colors were also popular. On the basis of inheriting the medium-term technology of Ming Dynasty, they were innovated. Besides yellow, green and purple, they also added blue on glaze, and the process was more diversified.Collections have a “plain three colors, a bottle of value and ten thousand gold.”Kangxi three colors, white dark flowers plain three more delicate, precious utensils including dark dragon fruit plates, plates, bowls, including the plain three-color bottle, the most valuable three colors.Plain three-color bottle black, yellow, green, purple four, many four painted flowers and birds.Among the later imitations, the three colors are also the most common.Kangxi period of the three-color modelling of the old, heavy, simple, fine porcelain soil, porcelain solid density, there is” glutinous rice juice “,” jade-like “reputation, and the picture meaning relaxed and lively.