Knowledge point | how to identify Qingdaoguang blue-and-white porcelain
In the Qing Dynasty, there were 29 years before and after the Daoguang Dynasty.At this time, the foreign ceramic market has disappeared.After the Opium War, national strength declined.Emperor Daoguang was known for being frugal and simple. He limited the production of porcelain, controlled the cost, and sometimes couldn’t afford to pay the normal expenses of the Imperial Kiln Factory, so the output was very low.Daoguang Qinghua to the Opium War as a boundary, can be divided into two periods.In the early stage, the output was larger and the quality was higher.In the later stage, the production is small and the quality is poor.
Blue and white phoenix through peony pot
Qing Dynasty Daoguang Dynasty (AD 1821-1850, Qing Xuanzong Aixinjueluo Min Ning (formerly known as Mianning) year number) around a total of 29 years.At this time, the foreign ceramic market has disappeared.After the Opium War, the Qing government ceded land to compensate for the loss, the decline of national strength.Emperor Daoguang was known for being frugal and simple. At the beginning of his reign, he first cut down the cost of intrauterine powder by millions and two million yuan. He also tried to be simple in making and controlling porcelain, and sometimes he could not afford to pay the normal expenses of the imperial kiln, so the output was very low and the fine products were rare.
With the Opium War as the boundary, Qinghua can be divided into two periods.In the early stage, the output was larger and the quality was higher.In the later stage, the production is small and the quality is poor.
The production of official kilns in Guangming period was mainly made of powder-colored porcelain, followed by blue-and-white porcelain.Daoguang Guan Yao has many imitation Kangxi, Qianlong Dynasty works, even if it is imitation Ming Dynasty works, also have Kangxi, Qianlong Dynasty style.
People’s kiln blue-and-white porcelain mainly for daily use, display porcelain for the second time;To domestic market-oriented, overseas market as supplementary.
The daoguang blue-and-white porcelain’s foetal soil is refined, especially in the early stage of the body, basically maintained the high-grade nature of the porcelain.In the later period, due to war and other reasons, there appeared some phenomena such as underrefined foetus soil, coarse porcelain, uneven thickness of tire wall, etc.Generally speaking, the Daoguang kiln porcelain and Jiaqing late similar, the fetal body is partial thick, especially the cutter bottom and the lower wall is more obvious.The body of the green flower of the folk kiln is delicate little, rough much;The matrix is thin, the degree of porcelain is low, the body is thick, and the degree of porcelain is low.
The glaze of the blue and white of the official kiln contains three kinds of blue, blue and white, among which white contains blue and white glaze is more.General small objects glaze thick, pink white.Large pieces of objects in the white contains green, glaze is microwave wave-like shape, some “buckwheat field.”The glaze layer is thin and transparent, the embryo glaze union is tight, the outcrop place does not see flint red, some utensils see wave glaze on, some can see the bubble of glaze surface obviously.Glaze juice thin, uneven glazing phenomenon is also common.The roots are round and thick, mostly pointed, with a small amount of “loach back”.
The official kiln apparatus full ridge is neat, the general dish dish is the round loach back foot ridge, the larger piece of utensils, the circle has been polished into the flat, both sides have been polished smooth, becomes an inverted angle-free trapezoid.The kiln circle is much irregular, the hand caresses the angular feeling that has tie a hand.Some kiln coarse porcelain does not pad porcelain cake, directly pad coarse sand fired, so there is sand-stained phenomenon.
Daoguang blue and white using domestic blue material description, the early blue and blue color stability, light blue is the main characteristics, some of the blue in the gray, overall is elegant and pleasant.Twenty years later, the blue and white flowers appear unstable color, bright tone, blue and white flowers appear monotonous color, do not see the blue and white layers, most appear floating.A part of the work in the blue slightly gray-black, blue material in the depth of the tone deeper and darker.People’s kiln porcelain mostly light blue blue blue material trace blue, coarse porcelain blue and white material thick see iron rust spot.Doguang later has not adopted the Yongzheng, Qianlong period of the commonly used heavy-pen point-dyeing method, so in the high-grade blue and white porcelain do not see the regular Tibetan blue and white spots.
At this time of blue and white derivative varieties are: blue and white painted gold, blue and white painted ink, blue and white painted, blue and white painted, blue and white red colored, blue and white yellow colored, green and purple glaze, blue and white glaze inside red, holly blue and white, among which blue and white painted in large numbers at that time.
Blue and white eight treasure hook lotus pattern binaural vase
Most of daoguang blue-and-white porcelain models follow the old system of the qianlong dynasty, with few innovations.Such as celestial bottle, jade pot spring bottle, gourd flat bottle, straight neck bottle, look at the bottle, flower wine, gallbladder bottle and so on.The shape is increasingly clumsy, hard lines, too sharp edges and corners, lack of delicate and round aesthetic feeling.Proportional imbalance, especially in the kiln, especially in the late Daoguang, many of the tools appear to be more stupid and vulgar.Thickness of the fetal wall is not equal, repair the fetus is not refined, make rough, common instrument type besides dish, bowl, cup, common outside, see flower pot, jade pot spring bottle, appreciate bottle, ribbon gourd bottle, fish tank, snuff pot, caldron and so on.At this time, the craftsman intentionally thicken the bottom and the tyre wall of the object, so the object is heavier than that of Jiaqing period, and the collapse phenomenon is reduced.
Disk type has the flower mouth dish, the accumulation dish, the skimming dish, the tripod dish.
There are skim bowl, folding bowl, sunflower bowl, flower bowl, high-foot bowl, covered bowl, pier bowl.
There are holding pots, long flow kettles without handle, snuff bottles, pots, teapots and so on.
Classes have bat ears, animal ears, lanterns.
Box type has oval box, begonia box, square box of Japanese horn in all directions.
Bottles are more abundant, jade pot spring bottles, plum bottles, garlic bottles, straight neck bottles, flat bottle, animal ear bottles, bottles, skimming bottles, cone bottles and so on.
In addition, daoguang blue and white still has the general jar, the flower wine, the warm pot, the wash, the cylinder, the long side basin, the long side horn tea saucer, the water Sheng, the candlestick, folds along the basin, the dandelion and so on.This period also burned some large vessels, compared with the Jiaqing Dynasty more, the body is generally thick, there are large pots, Yunlong basin, big lid can, large plate, six large flowerpots and so on.
Winter melon can is a new type of vessel which appears in the period of light. It is named after the winter melon because of its shape. Its basic shape is that the mouth of the jar is introverted, the mouth is polished and the bottom is concave. The inside of the lid is convex. The ring is smaller than the edge of the jar. The cover is just covered into the mouth of the jar. It is fixed and does not slide.The tank shoulder is full, the pot abdomen is long and round, the tank bottom is false ring foot;The lid is flat and has a bead button on it.After Xianfeng, in order to facilitate the pick-up, the cap button gradually into a flame-like.
Doguang period decoration gradually abandoned the imperial court style of the Qianlong official kiln, the composition tends to be sparse, lack of level changes, more insipid.Although the Guanyuan kiln products also try their best to maintain the neat and meticulous characteristics, but with a stiff pen, simple composition, lack of vitality.
The flower pattern decoration mainly uses the single line flat coating, the outline line is even, but lacks the strength.The official kiln instrument imitates the Kangxi landscape work and is exquisite, the civilian kiln instrument imitates the Kangxi knife horse human figure decoration to be common.The painting technique has become the main decorative method of the green flowers in the folk kilns.This period is popular inside blue and white outside pink or glaze color objects, this kind of blue and white flower decoration generally uses the technique of drawing flowers.
Flower, dragon and phoenix, such as decorative patterns of a serious trend of drawing, especially in a lot of objects painted, the size of the same, lack of artistic interest.The cutlery is painted on one side and on the other side is simply decorated with a butterfly or a bluegrass.The round tool draws more front, the reverse side also draws more simply three branches plum or three plants grass.
The lines are slender.The character is sluggish, tangible and devoid of spirit, later stage is more outstanding.Ornamental kiln decorative painting-based, less innovative work.The painting of kiln ware is random, the content is vulgar, and the picture tends to be hasty and simplistic.Rooster fighting, dog fighting, pigeons, parrots, katydid, crickets and so on as the theme of a large number of decorative.It is common to make use of all kinds of plants and animals to make up “Lianke Road”, “Five-Fook Pao Shou” and so on.The painting of twining flowers more than a single line drawing, flowers and leaves for the triangle, light trace hook lotus patterns more common, drawn lines thin light.There are many “happy” words on bottles, jars, etc.
Common themes of the pattern are: entwined branch lotus, mandarin duck lotus, chrysanthemum, pomegranate, Buddha’s hand, tangled branch peach, tangled branch eight treasure, broken branch flower, peony Goulian, three fruit, Yunlong, tuanlong, Yunfeng, Yunfeng, Kuifeng, Songzhu plum three friends map, banana leaves, sparrow plum, songhe, eight immortal, Baoxiang flower, Pan Ji, Bat-shou, phoenix-tree peony, sea unusual animal, baby play, melon butterfly, turquoise figure, bamboo butterfly, flower bird, landscape scenery, baby play, girl, eight immortal, fish algae, bogu, baobao, three sheep kaitai, bat lion pattern, clear dress lady, stone bogu and “unparalleled spectrum” character, etc.There are also some words for decoration, such as” longevity “, Sanskrit” longevity “words, such as smoking-cessation songs, especially with the most contemporary characteristics.
The Qianlong period began to appear in light blue glaze or green bean glaze with thick green material to write “blessing”, “longevity” or painted with butterflies, grass dragon and other simple patterns, and then put transparent glaze objects.Daoguang period of this method has been innovative, in the bean blue glaze, goku glaze and other colored glaze on a little white glaze, on which the use of blue and white painting characters, animals, and so on, and then a transparent glaze, resulting in a clear pattern, blue and white separate water to see finger lines, three-dimensional strong effect.
QING: general clerk
Daoguang money and Jiaqing money are basically the same.The official kiln porcelain year for the seal book “Da Qing Dao Guang year” six characters three lines, the word more than the box, the arrangement is neat, the font is powerful, the pen method is round, the stroke is thick, horizontal and vertical thick uniform, with blue and red color to write the money.Kiln multi-use alum red seal, the book “Daqing Road light year” three lines six words, but the font is not correct, writing random, scrawled, there are many omissions, some only write half the word.At this time regardless of the Daoguang prevailing Tang Dynasty money, the number is obviously more than the Jiaqing Dynasty.Tang money is generally a regular script, the most famous is the “prudent and virtuous church system”, “back-thinking church system”.”Shen De Tang” is the name of Emperor Daoguang himself, with the words written with the side front, very well-behaved.It is similar to the paragraph “Back to Si Tang”.The “Shen De Tang system” and “Yi Shou Tang”, which are written in regular script, are so exquisite that there are so many instruments in Guangxu and the Republic of China to imitate “Shen De Tang”.There are also “Li Ben Tang”, “Jia Le Tang”, “Jia Yang Tang”, “Qing Yi Tang”, “Zhi Shan Tang”, “Le Jing Tang”, “Hao Rantang”, “Lu Xin Tang”, “Ju Qing Tang”, “Pearl Lin Tang”, “Xi Yang Tang” and so on.Minyao is often known as” Xi Yin Tang “,” Listen to Yu Zhai “,” Quiet Zhai “,” hundred rich building “and so on.
Daoguang’s copies include: “Daming Cheng Hua year”, “Cheng Hua year”, “Daming Jiajing year”, “Yongzheng year”, “Daoguang Qianlong year”, but the style of writing is far different from the imitation.