Appreciation and Research of Blue-and-white Porcelain in the Ming Dynasty in the Museum of Hebei Province
Blue-and-white porcelain is the pride of Chinese ceramics, which originated in the Tang Dynasty, mature in the Yuan Dynasty, the Ming Dynasty in the middle and late to push it to a new peak.The blue-and-white porcelain made by Jingdezhen official kiln in Ming Dynasty is most famous for its exquisite craftsmanship, fine porcelain, pure color and pure texture.In addition, the technical level of the blue-and-white porcelain in the folk kilns has also been greatly improved, and there is a flourishing situation of the “official competition”, which makes the Ming Dynasty blue-and-white porcelain occupy an important position in the history of China’s ceramics.
The blue-and-white color materials used in the Ming Dynasty are not only imported but also made in China. The variety of blue-and-white materials is an important feature of the blue-and-white porcelain in the Ming Dynasty.For example, during Hongwu, Yongle and Xuande period, the green flowers were mainly made of hemp and hemp. The chemical composition was characterized by low-manganese high-iron, rich and bright color and black iron rust.There are also a few products used home-made green materials, chemical composition characteristics are high manganese low iron, blue and blue hair color moderate; during the period of the modernization of blue and white porcelain delicate elegant, the use of blue and white materials for the Su-mud and Pantang green (Pantang green) mixed materials, chemical composition characteristics of medium manganese iron, drilling content is low. Among them also has the domestic material of high manganese type; Jiajing, Wanli year green material basically uses refined Hui Qing to add stone green mixture, have high manganese and medium manganese two kinds, iron content has medium, low two kinds, return green hair color is rich and gorgeous, blue middle purple.In the modelling, the Ming Dynasty blue-and-white porcelain in inheriting the Yuan Dynasty in the ancient plain solid, magnificent foundation, formed a plump, rich, simple, elegant “Ming” style, at the same time, by the influence of foreign religious thought and culture, appeared a lot of new tools.The decorative theme of the blue-and-white porcelain of the Ming Dynasty is also varied, not only has the traditional patterns of flowers, birds, fish and algae, mountains, mountains and rivers, animals, gods and beasts, rolling grass, back lines, etc., but also has the patterns influenced by religion and foreign culture.This paper introduces and analyzes the characteristics of the times and cultural relics of the blue-and-white porcelain of the Ming Dynasty in Yucai Street, Hebei Museum.
1. The Arabic language of Ming Yong Le (Figure 1)
Brightness 17, caliber 17, inner hole diameter 9.8 cm.The upper and lower ends are folded into wide edges, the middle section is shaped like a waist cylinder, the center has a week of convex, bottomless, straight up and down.The upper and lower parts are covered with curly grass grain, and the upper and lower parts are written in Arabic. As the blue and white flowers are very faint, the handwriting is somewhat vague and the general content is” all things are not the Lord, but God is the only one “. “All praise to Allah” and so on.The inner and outer edges of the mouth are painted with daisy-leaf pattern, and the outer edge of the mouth is painted with a flower.
This device is imported “Su Ma Li Qing” blue and white glaze, blue and white color bright, clear and bright, and has obvious halo effect; At the same time, because of the high content of iron glaze, line texture color glaze condensation place black blue metal luster crystal spots, Rangoon has a bumpy side view or a touch of the hand.This natural form of black iron spots and rich blue into a clear characteristic of the Evergreen.
Yongle, Xuande (1403-1435) blue-and-white porcelain has burned a lot of new varieties, blue-and-white quality fine, rich tone, various shapes, beautiful patterns, with its unique artistic charm.This instrument is a new type of vessel which is influenced by Western Asian culture. Its unique appearance is modeled on the brass ware of Western Asian Arab region. It may be used as a base for other objects, and some experts believe that it is a candelabra used in the Arab region.Emperor Qianlong made clear in his inscriptions on the poem “Yong Xuande Yao Dang Zun”: “The system is quite similar to the Shang’s father Yi Zun, and both of them are quite similar to the Ligulary Disk, slightly like” Zunsheng Ba Jian “in the cloud seat flower bag. In the meantime, the hole is bottomless, but also not close, because of the name of” Han Fei “, and tied with poetry. From this, it can be seen that Emperor Qianlong named it “unworthy of honor” according to the words in Han Fei.It can be seen here “when” is the meaning of “bottom”, in the past people will be the name of the instrument as” no-file “or” no-stop “is not accurate, because” file “,” block “are not” bottom “interpretation.This is not only the perfect combination of Chinese porcelain decoration and foreign culture, but also the historical witness of China’s foreign trade and cultural exchange in the early 15th century.
2. Ming orthodox blue-and-white peacock peony pot (Figure 2)
High 37, caliber 21.5 cm.The body of the body is thick, the bottom of the non-glaze flint red, because of the fracture of the iron hoop for reinforcement.The blue-and-blue color of the table is deep and stiff, slightly red in grey and blue, and the glaze is smooth and smooth.The glaze in the pot is uneven, the mark of brushing glaze is very obvious.The neck of this organ is a brocade pattern, the shoulder is painted lotus pond pattern, the shin is lotus petal pattern, the belly theme is decorated for this period the most common peacock peony pattern: a malachite dance moves two wings to fly, one looks back walks in the peony, the mountain stone, the chicken crown flower, the butterfly, the bee to dance lightly, The layout is sparse and the painting is smooth.
Ming orthodoxy, Jingtai, Tianshun period (1436-1464) of the official kiln basically stopped burning.This period is called the “blank period” in the development history of Ming Dynasty ceramics.With the continuous enrichment of unearthed and handed-down materials and the deepening of research, we know that the production of folk kilns at that time was affected, but it did not stagnate.According to “Ming Shi Lu · Ying Zong Shi Lu” record: “Orthodox first year, Fuliang people Lu Zishun, a tribute to Beijing court porcelain more than 50,000 pieces.” Another according to “Ming History” records, orthodox to Tianshun more than 20 years, the Duchai has many times out of the list bar Jiangxi Raozhou private porcelain. At the same time, the porcelain pieces unearthed in Yudai River, Jingdezhen, Hutian and other kiln sites in Nanjing have all proved the continuity of production in this period, indicating that the “blank period” is not blank.
The bottom fracture is the common malady of “blank period” tank ware, which is because the bottom of the tank is easy to crack because the bottom of the tank is an independent round mud cake.This large pot provides valuable material for us to further study and understand Ming “blank period” porcelain.
3. Tomorrow’s crescent-shaped plastic pan chi tangled branches peony pattern garlic bottle (Fig.3)
High 37, diameter 5.5, abdominal diameter 20 cm.The shape of this device is dignified and primitive, long neck, shoulder, flat round abdomen, circle foot, because the mouth is like garlic so called garlic bottle.The body is thick, the glaze is plump, the blue and white color is deep and thick, the blue and black is slightly red.At the top of the bottle, the garlic head part is decorated with Ruyi cloud head grain and dot pearl grain, and the bottle neck is stacked with a flat chi, which has a convex eye on the big head, a slender neck and four claws, which are bent and forced to climb upward.Garnish around miscellaneous treasure and flower lines.The ventral motif is decorated with peony, petal level and leaf veins, which are completely imitated by Yongxuan official kiln, the flowers and leaves are turned over, natural and lively, and the writing is smooth, which belongs to the fine products in the kiln.
The same garlic bottle Hong Kong Art Museum also has a collection of its shape, technique, decorative pattern and this object is very similar, but the abdomen is flat, there is an inscription: “Xia Mei Tian Tudor Yuan Wang Cun She Cheng Shi Xi She Xiang Furnace, a disciple of the Buddha Cheng Shi Xi She one into the Huali Hualing Qingshun Wu year of September title”, provides us with the basis for breaking the generations, but also for us to study this period of cyan porcelain supplies valuable material.
4. Mingzheng De Qinghua phoenix wearing tangled lotus pattern cover jar (Fig.4)
The height is 39, the diameter is 17.5, the abdominal diameter is 31 cm.This jar has straight mouth, short neck, abundant shoulder, inner tummy and inward convergence, full circle, outer cover and bead top.Ornamental body decoration is clearly divided into four parts: the neck for Ruyi cloud head pattern, shoulder Ruyi shape open light inside drawing double lotus one; the abdomen for phoenix to wear lotus pattern: lotus branches and leaves winding, four phoenix with each other through the flower leaf; the shank for sea river cliff pattern, meaning Shoushan Fuhai.The whole picture level is clear, the theme is prominent, and the cover of the wrapped lotus is integrated into one, when the kiln blue and white in the good work.
In the Zhengde period (1506-1522), the production of blue-and-white porcelain in the folk kilns was carried on by Chenghua, Hongzhi, Jiajing and Wanli.At this time, the body of large-scale objects is relatively thick, using a variety of blue and white materials, early part of the product is still using “equal green” material, light color flash ash; some of the use of Jiangxi Province Shanggao County production of “stone blue”, color bright ash; Later also obtained from Yunnan “back to clear” materials, most of the color of rich brilliant purple, the pattern is not clear.The traditional “one stroke” is gradually replaced by “outline rendering”. The method is to draw out the outline first with thick green material, then render in the contour line with shallow green material, and the line is soft and round.
5. Figure 5 of the Ming Wanli Green Flower Eight Immortals character pattern gourd bottle)
Height: 47.5, diameter 5 cm.This instrument straight mouth, the middle girdle waist, like a gourd-shaped named gourd bottle.The upper part of the bottle is painted with bangs playing with golden toads, the lower part is painted with eight immortals, the middle part is painted with flowers, and the bottom is painted with lotus petal patterns.The two groups of characters are vivid, different in appearance and smooth in style.The use of the time is very precious” back to the green material “, blue and purple color, the era is very obvious characteristics, is representative of this period’s typical art style works.
Jiajing, Longqing and Wanli (1522-1620) were the middle and late Ming Dynasty, when the number of blue-and-white porcelain reached its peak, and there were many handed-down objects.From the beginning of the Ming Jiajing Dynasty, the system of “government-built civilian burning” promoted the improvement and development of the production technology of porcelain in the kiln to some extent.During this period, the number of large pieces of utensils increased significantly, blue and white painting is used to “sketch and render” and “single-line flat coating” techniques, blue and white materials are generally imported “back to the green material” and domestic materials in conjunction with the use of blue and blue hair blue and purple, thick and bright, unique.The layout of the picture tends to be puffy, the painting style is natural and interesting.In addition to the traditional decoration, the taoist thought of the content of the pattern decoration is also very popular.
Because “gourd” and “Fu Lu” homophonic, and at the same time gourd bottle is the container that holds Xian Dan, so Jiajing, Wanli period gourd bottle shape rich and popular for a while, the use of porcelain eight fairy pattern also appeared unprecedented climax.
6. Minced blue-and-white mackerel pen insert (Fig.6)
Height 9, abdominal diameter 13.5 cm.The shape of this device is special, flat cylindrical, the center of the surface of the device has a small hole and a little protuberance, communicating with the bottom.From its shape, it should be pen-holder, it is a kind of stationery.The table is divided into three layers, the top and bottom of which are single flowers and battlements, and the middle of which is decorated with fish alga.Floating duckweed on the surface of the water, water and grass, several fish swim through the lotus leaves, vivid.”Fish” and “Yu” homophonic, symbolizing abundance, but also because fish spawn more, become the symbol of reproduction, it is often used to wish for children, meaning auspicious.
The pen holder is one of the writing utensils for placing the brush pen, which first appeared at the time and is now inexplicable. It should be the ancestor of the pen holder which appears in the evening of tomorrow.In the Song Dynasty, “Hueyin Xiaxia Tu” and other paintings, has appeared the image of the pen insert.The “Long Object History” clearly describes the shape of the pen insert: “Drum sample, there are holes in the pen and ink, although the old things, is not elegant.” Ming Dynasty pen insert is generally one side hole, around three or four round holes, used to insert the pen, to the Qing Dynasty gradually evolved into a single hole and two holes.As a result of the emergence of the pen tube, not in line with the literati aesthetic taste of the pen insert, to the middle of the Qing Dynasty, has basically dropped out of the room.Its material is also more diverse, to porcelain, jade, copper, wood, other such as bamboo, stone, agate, crystal, is relatively rare.
7. Ming Wan Li Green Flower Dragon Embroidery Pier (Figure 7)
Top diameter 25, height 42, abdominal diameter 33 cm.The two ends of the device are slightly larger in the middle, like a round waist, the upper and lower sides are carved with a ring of symbols of the nail nail for decoration, the body is symmetrical on both sides carved a lion-shaped spread head, majestic.Embroidery pier slightly convex top surface, for the lion roll hydrangea pattern, the body part of the vessel for a circle of Ruyi moire, cloud head inside the painting of Yunma or flowers.The lower part is the sea river cliff pattern, the abdomen theme pattern is the five claw cloud dragon pattern, the dragon long beard opens the mouth, the mouth vomits the slender tongue, the nose looks like the Ruyi shape, the double eyes are like the bead, the mane is dense to erect upward, the dragon body is thin long, is full of adornment scale, the five claws is wheeled to make an opening, leaps over in “double” the shape cloud sea, “between,”, “, Shows an able, handsome, free and easy style.Blue and white color, blue and purple, decorative layout of dense, and the use of sketching and rendering techniques for decoration, the characteristics of the times are obvious.
Porcelain embroidery pier, Mingzheng De began to produce, after all the generations have burned, the Ming Dynasty to Jiajing, Wanli when the most.Due to the large size of embroidered piers, burning difficult, but also difficult to save, rare, so very precious.
8. Tomorrow’s Green Flower, “Three Friends of the Year”, is a picture of a melon-rimmed jar (Figure 8)
Height 16, caliber 8, abdominal diameter 17 cm.This shape is similar to a squash, the abdominal diameter is larger than the height of the pot, the melon rump is deeper, the fluctuation is larger, especially the pot mouth, also with the mud bar pulled out of the knead into a low beautiful petal-shaped melon rhombus.Fetal body slightly loose, glaze white and brilliant green, there is a sense of fat.Blue and white color deep and implicit, can mouth for the paper, shoulder for a week banana leaf pattern, the belly is by bamboo, pine, plum blossom composed of the “three friends of the year,” the picture, painting style for the bold and bold freehand freehand brushwork, layout is full, vivid and real.The bird is flying up and down, and the sound of singing is near, giving a sense of prosperity.
9. Tomorrow’s Green Flower Phoenix Peony Styling Gluten (Fig.9)
Height:32, diameter 14.4 cm.The Ming dynasty, which ruled China for two and a half centuries, was on the verge of collapse in the beginning of tomorrow (1620-1672). The porcelain industry in Jingdezhen was greatly affected, so the quantity of porcelain products decreased and the quality declined.
This vase is shaped like a bell-shaped mouth, with a bulbous abdomen and a tibialis external drum.From the shape to the decoration are clearly divided into three parts, the top painted red phoenix morning sun and phoenix peony pattern, the middle painted twined flowers, the bottom of the vertical line and Ruyi moire.The picture on the rising sun, rocks, flowers, a phoenix head singing, a flying, smooth lines, with a strong dynamic, phoenix is the king of birds, peony represents wealth and prosperity, look at the whole picture, level clear, meaning auspicious.Blue and white color is elegant, the painting style is free and simple, the decorative layout is sparse, it is an imitation of the Shang and Zhou bronze modelling of a good display.
10. Tulianzi Tans in King Wen’s Visiting Men (Figure 10)
Height 14.4, aperture 10.3, bottom diameter 9.5 cm.The lotus seed jar, with its thick center and slightly thinner ends, is named after the lotus seed.The cover has been lost. The mouth is decorated with a week’s dark-cut flowers, near the bottom with a week’s dark-cut sea lines, and the body of the pot is decorated with the popular “Jiang Taigong Fishing” story.The picture takes the willow as the background, two samurai hand-held ceremonial, Zhou Wenwang arch hand-in-hand asks Jiang Ziya to go back to help him to Xingzhou vanquish commerce, is fishing at the edge of the Wei River Jiang Ziya rose to meet each other, the blank space is lined with mountains and rocks, trees, clouds, stray, vivid image of the characters.Green flower color green gorgeous, decorative picture begins to use “divide water” technique, thick and light intertwine, layer clear.The pattern of “Mi” on barnyard grass, Hehuanshu and figure’s clothes all have the typical style of Chongzhen period.
The literature shows that during the Chongzhen period of the late Ming Dynasty (1628-1644), China’s national strength declined and Jingdezhen Imperial Kiln Factory declined gradually, while the folk kilns were still in a state of prosperity after the great development of the Wanli period, and the artistic style of the blue-and-white porcelain had a new appearance.It can be said that Chongzhen porcelain not only maintains the traditional interest of the Ming Dynasty, but also nurtures the style of the early Qing Dynasty.The body of this piece is firm and compact, the green flower is bright and green, the painting style is fine and neat, it should be Mingchongzhen Song Yingxing described in “Tian Gong Cai Wu” that was burned at that time.
11. Ming Chongzhen Blue and White Bath Elephant Pot (Figure 11)
The pass height is 38 cm.This kind of tank is one of the new creators of Chongzhen.Straight mouth, abundant shoulder, the abdomen is bent to the bottom slightly outside turn, the organ is eight-sided shape, flat sand bottom does not have glaze, match cover.The edge of the outer mouth is decorated with battlements, the shoulder is covered with large lotus petal, the lotus petal is placed with green flowers, the shin is shaped with lotus petal, and the body is emblazoned with the theme of “Bath Elephant”: a fat elephant, surrounded by several hooves or praying, Or in the preparation of a bath elephant, with rocks, flowers and trees, auspicious clouds.The form is vivid and natural, and it is full of life breath.In the late Ming Dynasty, Buddhism was very popular, and Zen advocated the elimination of all aspects of the obsession, for short, to sweep the phase, so that the image of the sweep, the figure of the bath is very popular, this theme not only appeared in painting works, but also popular in the print, blue and white porcelain of the time.