Millennium aesthetic blue-and-white porcelain, the United States is the world’s Chinese style
When the word “China” is capitalized, it means” China “, andinitials in lowercase,mean”Porcelain.”The first name for ceramics is「Chinaware」China tile.Later, he omitted to write “ware”, short for “china”.As the hometown of porcelain, ancient and mysterious China is inextricably linked with this noble and rare handicraft.
Blue-and-white porcelain, also known as white blue-and-white porcelain, is often referred to as blue-and-white, Chinese ceramic firing process treasures.Is one of the mainstream varieties of Chinese porcelain, under the glaze color porcelain.Blue and white porcelain is a cobalt ore containing cobalt oxide as raw material, on the ceramic body painted decorative, and then covered with a transparent glaze, high-temperature reduction flame once fired.
Cobalt is blue after firing and has the characteristics of strong coloring, bright color, high firing rate and stable color.The original blue-and-white porcelain appeared in the Tang and Song dynasties, and the mature blue-and-white porcelain appeared in the Hutian kiln in Jingdezhen in Yuan Dynasty.Qing Hua became the mainstream of porcelain in Ming Dynasty.
The period of Qing Kangxi reached its peak.During the Ming and Qing dynasties, the varieties of blue and white, malachite green glaze blue, bean green glaze blue, red green, yellow ground blue and goose glaze blue and white were also created.
Blue-and-white porcelain is also called blue-and-white.There is a return to the Qing Dynasty.Zhepu,Equal Green,Shi Ziqinɡ,The pearl is bright,Su Ma Li Qinɡ Hechemical green material.Here,The chemical green material is made of cobalt oxide. The color is purple-blue, pure and rich, but it lacks adhesion, low price and natural green material aesthetic feeling.
Hui Qing, there are produced in the western region, Xinjiang, Yunnan and other statements.This material has a purple color, if it is used alone, it will be scattered, so it is mixed with pebble green.Used to color (outline), the pen is clear and clear.
Zhejiang material, also known as Zhejiang Green, produced in Zhejiang Shaoxing, Jinhua area.The domestic materials in Zhejiang is the most superior, its hair color green, Ming Dynasty Wanli mid-Qing Dynasty, Jingdezhen official kiln green all used this material.
Equal green, also known as Bei Tangqing, produced in Jiangxi Leping.This material is pale color elegant, bright, stable, especially made into a blue-and-white device famous for a time.
Stone blue, also known as stone blue, produced in Jiangxi Gaoan, Yifeng, the high area.When this material is used alone, the blue-and-white hair color is gray and even black, the second generation of Ming and Qing Dynasties folk kilns commonly use this material, the official kiln is used with the Hui-Qing harmony use.
Pearl material, produced in Yunnan Xuanwei, Huize, Yiliang and other counties, among which Xuanwei material is the best.This material is bright and pure.Kangxi blue and white mostly use this material (above home-made cobalt materials are mostly high manganese).
Su Ma Li Qing, that is Su Ni Ma Qing, Su Bo Ni Qing, Su Ni Bo Qing.This material belongs to low manganese and high iron cobalt, so the green flowers are very green and green.rust mark”commonly known as”tin”I’m sorry.Part of the Yuan Qinghua and Ming Yongle, Xuande kilns used green materials for this purpose, the origin in ancient Persia or today in Syria.
There is one kind of
The Chinese Style in the World of Beauty
called blue-and-white porcelain
Chinese blue-and-white porcelain originated from the Tang Dynasty. The Song Dynasty developed slowly and handed down few artifacts.Yuan blue-and-white porcelain tends to be sophisticated, especially in Jiangxi Jingdezhen, the most exquisite, there is a certain number of blue-and-white porcelain handed down to the world, become today’s major international museums and various auction treasures.
Ming Dynasty is the peak period, no matter Jingdezhen official kiln, or the local folk kiln, there are a lot of fine works handed down from generation to generation.At this time of blue-and-white porcelain, has always been regarded as the model of Chinese blue-and-white porcelain, for later generations to follow.In particular, Yongle, Xuande and Chenghua, Jiajing and Wanli years of the official kiln fired blue-and-white porcelain, with its delicate embryo glaze, blue-and-white elegant, the appearance of diverse, decoration is well-known in the world.
The three emperors of Qing Dynasty, Kangxi, Yongzheng and Qianlong paid close attention to the production process of porcelain, the enamel of embryo and the decoration of picture.At this point, the glaze red, three-color, multicolored, multicolored, enamel is also competing for development.
After the Opium War broke out, the Qing Dynasty gradually declined.The inability to develop china, the country’s useless handicraft industry.Colonialism and markets in the West have pushed this towards industrialization.Since then, China’s porcelain-making technology has declined.The finest porcelain in Asia today is not made in China.Instead, it comes from japan, where there is a shortage of natural resources.
Yuan Dynasty of ChinatechniqueAfter maturity,blue and white porcelainA great deal of foreign sales have caused a sensation in the world.Japanese nobility and samurai admirers, ordered the six ancient kiln, the only production of glazed pottery Seto kiln imitation.But as China has not yet mastered the true meaning of porcelain, trial and error.
At that time the traffic was not developed, it was not easy to introduce porcelain-making technology directly from China.The Korean Peninsula, which is connected with China, is the first Asian country to master China’s porcelain-making technology. The southernmost part of the peninsula is only 200 kilometers away from Kyushu, Japan, which is a shortcut to obtain China’s high-tech indirectly.
At the end of the sixteenth century, Japanese general Toyotomi Hidekichi sent to Korea in 1592 on the grounds that he was rejected by the Korean King Lee for a North Korean expedition to China. “ceramic war”Take back a large number of potters and build kilns in Tangjin, Ueno, Takatsu, Samo and Hagi, which are centered in Kyushu, in the hope of changing Japan’s ceramic-free predicament.
In 1616, Li Shenping, a North Korean potter, made the first batch of blue-and-white porcelain for Japan when he discovered the white porcelain mine in Quanshan, a town in Zihe County, Kyushu.Because the decoration effect is like the blue print cloth, hence the name “dyeing and paying”I’m sorry.
Its leisurely and leisurely elegant taste, and the Japanese worship of the indifferent state of mind is very consistent, and immediately swept the country.That’s what the Japanese are proud of. “early Ivandri dyeing and payment”I’m sorry.
The original Ivan Li blue-and-white decorative arts and crafts, is borrowed from the Chinese Ming Dynasty, the oldest, the most simple.ink blowing method”I’m sorry.Refer to the Chinese blue and white pattern, and the composition is simplified as far as possible.No matter the landscape pattern, the animal and plant pattern, although all take the Chinese blue and white as the reference frame, but most of the pen tone is extensive, the painting style is freehand, the composition is sparse, points to stop immediately.
对于当时青料匮乏、瓷绘技巧尚且稚嫩的日本瓷业，与其说这种过分简约的手法出于画工们的无奈，毋宁说不愧为一项顺应逆境的聪明之举。今日日本的制瓷在中国智慧上茁壮成长，styleIt has taken a place in the world.
In 1602, the Portuguese merchant ship Santiago, carrying 42 boxes of porcelain plates the size of the Wanli kiln, was taken away by Spain in transit;Two years later, spain intercepted 60 tons of blue-and-white porcelain from a portuguese merchant ship, the cardinina.The world’s thirst for china’s blue-and-white porcelain is evident.
China’s turmoil in the late Ming Dynasty, coupled with the closed-door state of the Qing Dynasty.Europe’s enthusiasm for Chinese porcelain is hard to satisfy.The merchant gathered his eyes on Japan.However, Japan’s technology is immature and its resources are scarce, and its output is insufficient.As a result, European craftsmen began to devote themselves to the study of porcelain craftsmanship.
In the 18th century, a scientist explored the porcelain-making process, and the porcelain factory came into being.As industrial spies stepped in, porcelain-making spread throughout Europe.By the beginning of the 19th century, Germany, Britain, France, Italy and other countries made their own porcelain varieties with different formulations.
In the early days, westerners had a mentality of “admiring foreign countries and coddling foreign countries” to Chinese porcelain, so there were also a large number of” shanzhai “.With the rise of the West, they have increased their own level of civilization and confidence.European porcelain has come out of its own way, both technically and in style.
Now three centuries of inheritance, the production of high-end porcelain in Europe has become a rigorous technology.Each painter and stylist of German porcelain, for example, must undergo decades of artistic and technical training to integrate each creation into the artistic style of different periods.