Appreciation of Blue and White Porcelain in Qing Dynasty
Since the 46 years of Wanli, the Ming Dynasty has been invaded by Hou Jin (Qing Dynasty), its national strength continues to decline, and the people are in dire straits.By the end of the Ming Dynasty, there were more internal and external worries, and the government was in a state of chaos and panic.The Ming Dynasty, which lasted 277 years, withdrew from the stage of history after the death of Emperor Yizong of Ming Dynasty.However, the birth and development of the blue-and-white porcelain in Chongzhen Dynasty brought back a glimmer of light for the end of the dynasty and added the last ray of sunshine and wind color to the Daming Dynasty.From today’s handed-down products, Chongzhen blue-and-white porcelain, although the number of rare, but most of the well-made, fine painting, mixed water layers, blue-and-white hair color clear, beautiful and elegant, for today’s majority of people recognized and respected.
Jingdezhen porcelain kiln from the Jiawan period of “Guandi people burn” pattern to the late Ming Dynasty has no longer existed, unable to maintain the production and development of the porcelain, to Chongzhen, Guanyuan kiln completely collapsed.However, in order to survive and develop, Jingdezhen craftsmen, some of the fine craftsmen who used to be in the official kilns still carry on the exquisite skills of their predecessors, in the folk kiln this wide world has been effectively played.Producing craftsmen and master porcelain painting, continue to play their ingenuity, so that their ancestral techniques not only effectively inherited, its level of technology reached a new peak.
First of all, Chongzhen period blue and white decorative patterns, the use of the Wanli period, the start-up mixed-water painting, its decorative elegant, fresh and elegant tone, increased the aesthetic appreciation.This mixing method continued until early morning, when the Qing Kangxi color five layers, its level of painting reached the point of pure fire.Most of the subjects are landscape characters, folk stories, opera characters and so on.The utility model has a censer, a lotus seed jar, a porridge pot, a bowl and so on.As shown in Figure 1, the container is a typical representative of Chongzhen Qing Dynasty’s blue-and-white utensils.Abdominal body is like tomato, close mouth abundant shoulder garden abdomen, small circle foot is wide and thick, the foot side outcrop is more, fetal quality is fine white.To show the love story as the theme of painting a character story: two children take the study of the first man to your home, and the garden wall standing high two women, looking at the spring-like husband, like “standing in a wall of flowers” a moving beauty.New construction, fine painting, blue and white hair bright.And then Figure 2, a small bowl, belly lying foot, thrifty micro-turn, painted in the bowl of the people’s yard map, the picture is full of the entire bowl.Theme for the appreciation of Qi Tu, an old man sitting in the courtyard of the embankment, to watch a disciple moved to a large turnip.It’s very rare to have a wonderful idea.Painter’s old road, the lines are elegant and smooth, filling the color is symmetrical and beautiful.Fetal quality is fine white, fetal thin such as eggshell, transparent light is excellent, it can be called Chongzhen high-quality goods, cherish the disabled.
By the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, the state of the world was still not quiet, while facing the covetous Li Zicheng’s peasant rebel army, while facing the challenges of the Nanming forces, making the 6-year-old emperor _ Shunzhi tremble on the throne.Therefore, this period is only a short 17 years, coupled with the frequent war, the court is still careless about the development of Jingdezhen porcelain industry, unable to build a large-scale production of official kilns, so it is rare to see Shunzhi official instruments.The production of Jingdezhen porcelain industry in the late Ming and early Qing Dynasty developed in the mainstream of folk kilns, and the porcelain of this period had many similarities.The porcelain of the two dynasties was very similar and similar to each other, whether in the form or in the enamel of the fetus or in the painting, so today people call this period “the end of the Ming and the beginning of the Qing Dynasty”.Some of the techniques were first created in Chongzhen and were popular in Shunzhi, creating subtle differences between the two dynasties, such as making a circle of dark-cut patterns at the shoulder and the lower proximal feet, and forming a garden cake.The method is to paint the blue-and-white decorative objects in the embryo shoulder or the lower part of the needle carved a regular circle of twining patterns, and then covered with transparent glaze into the kiln.As shown in Figure 3, a small jar with a cap and a bottle-like can are evolved from a lotus seed jar of Chongzhen.Fung mouth shoulder, bottom of garden abdomen, thin body sharp bottom, garden cake-like foot, with button-free cover, beautiful and elegant shape, shoulders decorated with a circle of dark carved twining patterns, more show the sense of luxury.The painting subject matter is Qiu Jiang waiting to cross the map, a scholar waits for the boat man to carry the ferry.Accurate performance, vivid appearance, its painting level is very high.In the late Ming and early Qing Dynasty, the blue-and-white porcelain was closely related to each other. Because of its advantages, it was loved by later generations.
The blue-and-white porcelain used in the Ming Dynasty was different from each dynasty, from the use of imports expected to excavate the domestic blue-and-white materials, constantly replacing innovation.Chongzhen to the use of a high-quality Zhejiang materials, produced in Shaoxing, Jinhua, Zhejiang Province, its advantages of verdant and pure, from the mid-Wanli use has been used until the Qing Dynasty.In short, due to the use of good green materials, coupled with a group of talented technical personnel, Chongzhen blue-and-white porcelain to its beautiful blue-and-white tone, fine decoration and popular painting themes and simple and elegant modelling, to win people’s love and pursuit, That’s why Chongzhen blue-and-white porcelain is so popular in collectors.(Graphic: Yao Zhizhou)