The historical background and general situation of the development of blue-and-white porcelain in China
To say our country mature blue-and-white porcelain, only the Yuan Dynasty blue-and-white.
Then two American folk scholars took the lead (name omitted), the first to distinguish some of the early collection of the Yuan Ming blue-and-white porcelain.Later, Mr. Pope, a scholar at the Friar Museum in the United States, made use of the distinction between two American non-governmental scholars to study Sweden, Iran and Turkey.By publishing twice as many books, he has established his special position in the international research field of yuanqing hua.But mr popper, a scholar at the ferrell museum in the united states, is a bit selfish, not only attacking the british scholars, hobson and grand, in his writings, but also covering up the two american folk scholars who discovered the “partition of the ivy china”.
Mr. R. L. Hobson, who was of great significance to the discovery of blue-and-white porcelain in the Yuan Dynasty of China, had no choice but to die in his dream of finding reliable evidence of the art of blue-and-white porcelain in the Song Dynasty and the archaeology of the Yuan Dynasty.From the rigorous point of view of academic research, although Mr. Hobson did not use painting style and shape as Popper, the Yuan Qinghua from the original general “Ming Dynasty blue-and-white porcelain”, but his academic attitude is worthy of our respect.
Moreover, whether or not Mr. Popper’s” Yuan Qing Hua Classification “can completely distinguish Kaiyuan Ming’s blue-and-white porcelain due to the disruption and destruction of the Qinghua kiln site in the Yuan Dynasty in Jingdezhen (some non-governmental scholars who have mastered the stratum of the kiln site have not made public information), Up to now the academic circles and the collecting circles also have dissension.
It turned out that Mr. Pope was lucky. The blue-and-white porcelain of the Yuan Dynasty was not directly related to the Qing Hua of the Song Dynasty and the Qing Hua of the Tang Dynasty.If Hobson’s search for “Song Qing Hua”, in China’s local archaeological excavations, confirmed that there is no factor affecting the Yuan Dynasty blue-and-white porcelain, then Yuan Qing Hua is truly unique in the sense of blue-and-white porcelain.
In the late 1950s, Jinsha Tower and Shaoxing Huantu Tower excavated in the Song Dynasty Taji blue-and-white ware and porcelain pieces, careful observation, blue-and-white quality is generally thicker, most of the gray-white tire, the bottom glaze has shadow blue, white yellow, pale blue glaze and so on, the true pure white glaze is very few.The burning quality of objects is generally not high, blue and white hair color is mostly blue-black or blue-gray, some even with some black, blue and white color is not bright enough.The “Song Qinghua” unearthed in Taji of Song Dynasty in Zhejiang Province, has been analyzed by chemical elements, and the blue-and-white pigment used is home-made cobalt with high manganese oxide.
From their color characteristics, they should also contain more impurities of the original domestic cobalt materials.The subject matter of the decoration is single, and the objects are mainly the practical tools of life.Although there is no relationship between Song Qing Hua and Tang Qing Hua and Yuan Qing Hua, there seems to be some inheritance and development between them.Was it influenced by the Qing-hua in Tang Dynasty? While people are still searching for accurate answers, it is said that these blue-and-white porcelain excavated by the State Archaeological Research has been found to belong to the Ming Dynasty products.So the Song Dynasty and the Song Dynasty there are blue-and-white two camps, to the present debate.
Even “Song Qinghua” products, but because the quantity is very small, the quality is also very poor, the scope of use is also very limited, estimated to have no effect on future generations and the effect, we can ignore.As for the growing environment of the blue-and-white porcelain in Song Dynasty, there was little room for growth from the inside (the pursuit of elegance in Song Dynasty) and from the outside (the emphasis on literature and the suppression of commerce).Even sporadic discoveries in a small part of a region have no effect on the surrounding area, let alone on later generations.
To this end, Yuan Ming blue and white porcelain and the so-called “Song Qinghua” is basically not very direct inheritance relationship.Even Tang Qing-hua, and Yuan Ming Qing-hua although the same use of West Asian cobalt materials, but the composition of the foetal materials, processing technology, glazing method, blue material drawing, firing process, temperature and so on are completely different two systems.
In the same period of the Northern Song Dynasty, the quality and firing technology of blue-colored and multicolored pottery were not comparable to that of Chinese porcelain, but the decoration far exceeded that of Qing-hua and other porcelain in the Tang Dynasty.In addition, the overall recommendation of the Song Dynasty, resulting in the reduction of overseas commercial trade and the Tang Dynasty compared to the Central Plains political center of the ceramic trade natural impact, the central region of the civilian kiln site far from the political center of the southern kiln in order to survive, indirect or secretly engaged in overseas trade (to Yangzhou, Quanzhou, Fujian, Guangzhou).
The Yuan Dynasty conquered the Arab region, Iraq, Turkey, Iran and so on belong to the Yuan Dynasty vassal state scope.At the same time, the early Yuan Dynasty in the north of Zhuyao (Jun kiln, Cizhou kiln) and the south (Jingdezhen kiln, Longquan kiln and a small number of Fujian kiln and Jizhou kiln) still export to Southeast Asia and the Arab region.But the unchanging nature of these products has led to weak export sales.
The mid-Yuan Dynasty probably Renzong period also only Longquan kiln and Jingdezhen blue and white porcelain is a bulk export, followed by the northern Cizhou kiln more and more sporadic exports (overseas like to have pictures of porcelain), other kilns basically turned to the domestic market.And the color glaze pottery of Arabic area compares Tang, Song period product already had great progress.In particular, decoration is generally recommended (especially in Iran’s multi-colored pottery and other monochrome glazed pottery).
People can’t help but ask: is the blue and white flower influenced by the painted pottery of the arabian blue and white flowers?Is there any chance of Arab craftsmen coming to Jingdezhen, China to participate?I think that the Arab region and China began cultural exchanges from the Tang Dynasty, during the Yuan Dynasty, a lot of Arabs traveled in two regions, the impact is natural, but not the main factor.
Because, from core interest, politics, religion, cultural strategy consideration, the degree of participation is very limited.As we all know, the ancient porcelain making and firing process is extremely confidential, which is the only core technology known as China’s porcelain country, and is an important part of the interests of the country and the people’s livelihood.Otherwise, the Yuan Qing Hua from birth to maturity will not go through 28 years of long groping and development period.Would it take 28 years if there were Arab craftsmen involved in the firing of blue-and-white pottery?
Yuanqing flowers from strategic starting to start feeling burning, and then to basic success, and then gradually mature, not like many people think that the birth is a beautiful big girl.
From Yanyou six years (1319) germination period, to the first seven years (1335) blue-and-white hair color and painting basic maturity, experienced 16 years of experimental groping period. From Yanyou’s six years (1319) to the first seven years (1347), the blue-and-white flower was fully matured (also depicted) and experienced 28 years of long groping and development. During the four years from the seventh year (1347) to the eleventh year (1351), it was inferred from the inscriptions on archaeological excavations (which did not rule out the possibility that blue-and-white porcelain would mature earlier than non-inscriptions) that the development and production of blue-and-white porcelain were advancing by leaps and bounds, It is also the prosperous period of the production of Yuanqing porcelain.
This is only from the present has the solid archaeological inscriptions to calculate.Even if the early discovery of the blue and white porcelain inscriptions unearthed and appeared, at least 20 years of exploration and development time, and finally became a famous porcelain at home and abroad.
The success of the firing of the ivy china made it difficult for the rival arabic porcelain to spread to all parts of the arab world, including parts of africa, east asia japan, southeast asia vietnam, thailand, singapore, malaysia, indonesia, the philippines, brunei, and so on. South Asia, India (including Pakistan), Nepal and many other areas of the Mongolian Yuan sphere of influence.So that the international status of Chinese porcelain was re-established, it also gave the world a brand-new appearance, became an important milestone in the history of Chinese ceramics development, and also opened up the future for the development of Ming and Qing porcelain.