The characteristics of Kangxi blue-and-white porcelain, finally collected all
Kangxi green flower is a bright pearl, it is delicate and beautiful, green and bright green flower color, exquisite painting decoration, a variety of objects modeling unique to the history of Chinese ceramics.Because of its high historical, artistic and collectible value, officials from the late Qing Dynasty to the Republic of China, civilian kilns, and modern Jingdezhen kilns are competing to copy.Kangxi’s 61-year reign, Kangxi porcelain production is also divided into early, middle and late three, and really can represent the highest level of Kangxi blue and white porcelain is Kangxi mid-term porcelain.Based on the blue-and-white porcelain in the middle period of Kangxi, the art characteristics and the identification of the true and false are discussed.
Palace Museum, Qingqing Kangxi blue and white, dragon pattern vase
The blue-and-white porcelain is a blue-colored underglaze porcelain that is painted with cobalt oxide as a colorant and then coated with transparent glaze and fired at high temperatures (about 1200 degrees Celsius to 1300 degrees Celsius).Since the Yuan Dynasty, it has been the mainstream of porcelain firing, so a large number of bowls, plates, pots and other household porcelain, is in the form of blue-and-white porcelain fired out.
As a result of the addition of new materials kaolin blue-and-white porcelain tire, compared with the Song and Yuan Dynasty porcelain porcelain to be white and delicate, and blue and white two tones are also a new look.Compared with later porcelain varieties such as multicolored and powder enamel, the harmful ingredients in underglaze color materials are not easily precipitated, and blue-and-white porcelain can be said to be cleaner and harmless.
Blue-and-white porcelain has many advantages, and because of its bright, elegant, quiet and harmonious characteristics from the inside and outside, it has also won the appreciation and preference of scholars and officials, and has been loved by the public.
Palace Museum, Qing Dynasty, Kangxi, blue and white, with white and white patterns, Baba teapot
The background of Kangxi blue-and-white porcelain
In 1644, the Qing Dynasty established the capital of Beijing.With the initial social, economic and political stability of the Shunzhi period in the early Qing Dynasty, the social productive forces and people’s lives were restored and developed to different degrees by the time of Kangxi.As the longest-serving emperor in Chinese history, Emperor Kangxi studied and introduced a great deal of Western advanced technology while absorbed in Chinese culture, and made brilliant achievements in all fields.
In the production and burning of porcelain, the Qing government first announced in the second year of Shunzhi: “Except for directly governing the province of craftsmen, the price of Beijing craftsmen is exempted.” The system of craftsmen’s books since the Ming Dynasty was abolished.Then in the second year of Kangxi, “Banshang price silver, into a whip collection.” This series of reform of the system, to some extent, to reduce farmers and craftsmen in the feudal relationship of personal attachment to the shackles, promote the ceramic industry’s long-term development.However, due to the main origin of porcelain in Jiangxi Province, has been in the Nanming anti-Qing activities of the most frequent areas, coupled with the Kangxi 13 years (1674) Pingsanfan war, ceramic production suffered a certain extent of destruction.Until Kangxi 19 years (1680) Jingdezhen first restored the Imperial Artistry Factory, ceramic production has gradually been on the right track, and then carried out a certain amount of palace official kiln porcelain placed in the best location in the kiln fired, that is, the so-called “official burning.”The implementation of this way of firing, so that the civilian kiln firing technology has developed.On the other hand, kiln porcelain also plays an important role.Kangxi kiln porcelain mainly with blue-and-white porcelain, compared with the official kiln porcelain, although the overall quality inferior to the official kiln, but in the art performance, it is not restricted by the form, and brave to explore, bold creation will be practical and ornamental integration, blooming vigorous vitality.Although there are various restrictions on the manufacture of porcelain in the official kilns, due to the financial resources and prestige of the court, excellent craftsmen are often gathered up and, with the participation of literati and officials, display their ideals of beauty and create works of beauty.As recorded in “History of Qing Dynasty” volume 5O 5: “Participate in the modern style, from the new idea, ready with ingenuity, painted characters, landscape, flowers and birds each extremely win, and into, its exquisite than the Ming Dynasty kiln.”
Palace Museum, Qingqing Kangxi blue and white chicken, peony pattern, phoenix tail.
The porcelain made during the reign of Kangxi is of the highest variety, the largest quantity, the most widely spread, and the most famous in China and abroad.
In the late 17th century, for example, the German king Augustus, who was particularly fond of Chinese porcelain, bought about 20,000 pieces of Chinese porcelain and numbered them for storage.That wasn’t enough. He was determined to emulate China’s burning of porcelain, which required special earth that Germany didn’t have, and ordered him to look around and to design samples.Kongfu paid off, and ultimately fired successfully.The now-famous German Maison porcelain was developed by the German national leader, who loved Chinese porcelain.In particular, the foreign king preferred the kongxi blue-and-white porcelain, which he used to trade a regiment of his army for a group of kongxi blue-and-white porcelain from the qing dynasty to austrian territory.This group of porcelain remains in Germany; it consists of two jars, two jars and one zun.”I’ve seen these relics before, and they’re really very beautiful,” said Geng Baochang, a porcelain connoisseur.
Palace Museum, Qingqing, Kangxi, Qinghua landscape figure, painted pot.
At this time the production of porcelain, as mentioned above, is still mainly blue-and-white porcelain, artistic achievement reached a certain height, this point can also be found from the ancient literature basis.For example: “hard color, Qinghua to Kangxi as the polar track”, (excerpt from “Yin Liuzhai said porcelain” in the “said color fourth” section).Chen Liu, a man from the Qing Dynasty, said in his book “Tao Ya”: “The green flowers of Yong (Zheng) and Qian (Long) did not catch Kang (Xi) kilns. However, the green flowers and the young people of Kang (Xi) were not as beautiful as those of Ming (Ming), but they could walk alone in this dynasty.” We can understand according to the view in “history of chinese ceramics”, that is: from the point of view of thick and beautiful, whether Kangxi Qinghua is not all ming dynasty Qinghua, can also be studied again, but Kangxi Qinghua can” walk the original dynasty alone “.Therefore, the blue-and-white porcelain of the Kangxi period has an extremely important historical position in the development history of China’s ceramics. It has a pure embryo glaze, green hair, a variety of shapes, beautiful patterns and long-known, this is the Qing Dynasty history of blue-and-white porcelain can not be compared with it.In this way, since the end of the Qing Dynasty, there has been a wave of admiring Kangxi blue-and-white porcelain.
Palace Museum Zang Qing Kang Xi Yuan Qing Hua Shuanglong opera pearl pattern three-legged incense burner
Characteristics, Materials, Colors and Stages of Kangxi Blue-and-White Porcelain
According to the different features and features of Kangxi blue-and-white porcelain, the development process is divided into three periods: early, middle and late.
Palace Museum Tibet Qing Kang Xi 23 years blue and white cloud dragon pattern incense burner
The early period was from the first year of Kangxi to the 19th year of Kangxi (1662-1680). At this time, the Qinghua porcelain of Kangxi was still in the transitional period from the end of Ming Dynasty to the beginning of Qing Dynasty.In the middle period, from 19 years of Kangxi to 40 years of Kangxi (1680-1701), the production technology of blue-and-white porcelain was improved, whether it was from the fetal quality, glaze, hair color, decorative style; or from the tool type, all had a long-term development, reached a new era peak.The famous Kangxi multicolored blue and white flowers are the product of this period.Late refers to the period from forty years of Kangxi to the end of Kangxi Dynasty (1701-1722). This period has changed with the development of time, which affected later generations, especially the style of the blue-and-white porcelain in Yongzheng.
The following will be based on the characteristics of the tire, glaze, foot, hair color, decorative, modeling, style and knowledge of blue and white porcelain in Kangxi period.
Palace Museum, Tibet Kangxi 10 years blue and white fairy pattern incense burner bottom
1. Characteristics of Tire Glaze
Generally speaking, Kangxi blue and white porcelain is famous for its thick body, fine and hard texture and thin glaze.Its embryo glaze is fine, the union is tight.This is different from the later blue-and-white porcelain.
Kangxi early blue-and-white porcelain, thick body thick and coarse rate, rich and green glaze surface, shrinkage glaze and black small brown eyes.Most of them are often coated with a layer of paste glaze, the bottom foot treatment is rough, and stick to fine sand, or not smooth phenomenon, some of the surface of the body is still obviously retained on the porcelain of the late Ming Dynasty porcelain radial jump marks, the individual objects of the two sides of the foot wall oblique pointed shape, And the diameter of the circle is large, many such as bottle, touch, pot, pan and cutters large porcelain, such as the bottom of the cylinder as a step-shaped, straight corner fold, commonly known as” two-story table “or” step bottom. “Double circle foot is also popular in this period, the large market in the kiln is more, the official kiln with the dragon fold along the washing, printing box and other artifacts are more.These objects have the characteristics that the inner ring is shorter than the outer one, that the two circles of the feet have no glaze and the tire is exposed, and that the circle is quite thick and wide.The base of the blue-and-white porcelain of the Kangxi official kiln is not very delicate in the early period of Kangxi.
Palace Museum, Qingqing Kangxi blue and white, Bogu pattern box.
In the middle period of Kangxi, the blue-and-white porcelain ware has developed to a certain extent in the aspect of body body, and the craftsmanship is more exquisite.With the further improvement of the firing temperature in the porcelain kiln, the body of the fired porcelain is thin and white and delicate, that is, the “glutinous rice” tire, which is often said by the ancients of antiquities.If you use a magnifying glass to observe the middle period of Kangxi blue and white porcelain fragments of the exposed area, you can see that the body thickness moderate, repair the tire workers.Therefore, the quality of blue-and-white porcelain during this period has been improved as a whole.The glaze of the object is also changed from initial green with black brown eyes to white and smooth, thus making the blue and white flowers more quiet and beautiful.The body of the porcelain of official kiln is also clean and hard, rare impurity “glutinous rice tyre”, its body is thin and uniform, repair tire is neat and careful.The general porcelain glaze surface has the powder white and the pulp white two kinds of colors commonly, the powder white glaze surface appears the loose slightly, and has the fine crushing to open the slice.In addition, we can see a bright white and blue glaze, but not many.By the middle of Kangxi period, the phenomenon of “two-story table” on the bottom of early porcelain continued to exist, and the cutting of the sole was similar to that of early porcelain, except that the foot diameter was slightly smaller than that of early porcelain.The base of most objects is clean and smooth, the treatment is excellent, and the foot is round and smooth. This is the base of the loach which is commonly said in Kangxi blue-and-white porcelain.But the base of this period is not as round as the foot of the later period especially Yongzheng blue-and-white porcelain.
Palace Museum Zang Qing Kang Xi blue-and-white glaze in the red landscape poem at the bottom of the plate (double circles)
As a result of the development of porcelain manufacturing technology, porcelain needed to be made of earth-ceramics more refined, the purification of raw materials has also been developed to a certain extent.As a result, the body of the body is more delicate, hard and pure, so the content of iron impurities in the body is greatly reduced, and the phenomenon of “flint red” is rarely seen.In addition, the mid-Kangxi blue-and-white porcelain with a tight combination of the tire and glaze, the overall glaze color of the same.This period appeared with the washing fine pulp to make the porcelain tyre, commonly known as” the pulp tyre “, its characteristic is the texture fine, the hand is partial light, makes the article to be mostly the printing box, the water pot and so on small piece implement.
Palace Museum, Qing Dynasty, Kangxi plasma tyre, blue-and-white landscape covered cylinder.
By the late Kangxi period, with the development of the society and the stability and improvement of the people’s lives, the demand for porcelain at home and abroad increased greatly, resulting in a large increase in the output of porcelain, porcelain burning on the basis of fully inheriting the medium-term Kangxi, and continuous rapid development, The body of the kiln ware is thin and thick, but it tends to be thinner, and the degree of porcelain is good.The glaze color mostly is fine and moist blue white and pink white, but mainly by the powder white, the embryo glaze union is tight, presents a kind of cleans through the hard feeling.At this time the body of the porcelain of the official kiln becomes thinner, the embryo quality is more hard, the glaze also becomes more clean and moist, from the middle of that pink white to white gradually transition.The glaze appears a kind of hard bright blue color, the luster is natural and soft, and the early glaze color gives the person to the blue in the mixing, the tonal gray dark feeling compares, the late green appears green, gives the person fresh bright feeling, the artifact embryo glaze union is also more compact, The porcelain was produced to reveal a jade-like texture.The base of the later stage of Kangxi blue-and-white porcelain is generally cut flat, and the cutting is neat, the turning point of the second floor is not as stiff as before, and shows the feeling of mellow and delicate.
Kangxi “two-story station” foot
Thus it can be seen that the changes of the tread, glaze and substrates in these three periods tend to progress and develop, and the single white glaze runs through the third period.
2. Material and color characteristics
During the reign of Kangxi in Qing Dynasty, Jingdezhen porcelain-making artists accumulated experience through years of hard work, thus gradually mastered the use of a variety of categories, different shades of blue color, dyed out of the depth of other blue color scale changes, from a stroke can also be glimpsed in its distinct color rhyme. To make the objects depicted as clear and clear, there has always been a “five-color blue and white” reputation.In addition to the use of high-quality blue material factors, its unique performance in the successful use of water separation techniques, which originated in China’s traditional ink painting in the five-color ink, so that a blue material can be divided into a thick head, two thick and other different shades of the same color, It can be adjusted and used according to the different needs of the picture.It is worth mentioning here that craftsmen’s division of labor, the Qing Dynasty potter Tang Ying in the “Tao Yetu said” this book recorded the painting of blue and white porcelain division of labor: “Painters learn not to dye, dyers learn not to learn to dye. So one hand, regardless of its heart also. The artist and the dyer gather together in one room in order to form a uniform work. To such as the edge of the blue band, out of the bad hand of the whirlwind, to read the secretary, on the work of the money; write zodiac for the above, archaize to see what can be refined, this blue and white is different from the colorful also. “True,” Correct division of labour plays an important role in improving the efficiency of labor production.
Palace Museum, Qingqing Kangxi blue and white flowers, pine and crane pattern tin
The history of the blue and white materials used in the Qing Dynasty was not clearly recorded. About the book was written in the Yongzheng period of the Qing Dynasty, “Nanyao Notes”, which recorded the green materials used at that time in addition to the Zhejiang and Jiangxi materials already used in the Ming Dynasty, and said: “This dynasty, Guangdong and Guangxi are available, but not fire-resistant, painting color into the furnace is black.” Because of this, the book came to the conclusion that: “Therefore, the total Zhejiang material for the top.” “Guangxu year asked the book Qianlong year” Quanzhou Fu Ma Xiang Hall Records” about digging wells to get green materials in the records: “Wanqing, Jinmen ancient lake Qionglin excavated the wellhead, Jiangxi Jingdezhen and Dehua, Ningde kiln needs.” Most scholars think: “This kind of materials from Jiangxi, Guangdong and Guangxi, and from Jinmen, Fujian, are probably only used on coarse blue-and-white porcelain.”
Palace Museum, Qingqing Kangxi Blue and White Flower, Ice and Plum pattern, Kaiguang unique animal jar.
In the early years of Qianlong, Tang Ying put forward in his book “Tao Ye Tu Shuo”: “Porcelain, blue and white need green big glaze, by the green material, out of Zhejiang Shaoxing, Jinhua two houses belong to the mountains…. The Jiangxi, Guangdong mountain producers, color thin not fire-resistant, can draw rough.” Therefore, some scholars believe: “The beautiful Kangxi kiln blue and white porcelain should also be used in this kind of Zhejiang materials.” 3, but also some scholars believe that Kangxi period blue and white porcelain, “The use of blue and white raw materials is Yunnan pearl materials.” Ancient ceramic connoisseur Mr. Geng Baochang thought it is pearl materials and Zhejiang materials, combined, All of the above for your reference.As for the coloring effect, Kangxi’s early blue-and-white porcelain, its hair color is gray and dark blue, there is a turbid feeling.In the middle period, hair color from gray to green, thick and light, to achieve the so-called “ink” in traditional painting, “blue and white,” known as the late blue and white hair color becomes light, giving people a fresh, bright and hard feeling, but also poor quality, The phenomenon of multi-color unstable and halo-scattered occurs.Among them, the most characteristic in the middle and late period, especially in the middle period, is the typical hair color of Kangxi blue-and-white porcelain.
Palace Museum, Qingqing, Kangxi, Qinghua, the story of the red brush baton bottle.
3. Features and drawing methods
In the early years of Kangxi, the society was not stable because it was still in the early period of the dynasty’s replacement. The change of current situation led to the change of people’s psychology and the search for certain sustenance.Therefore, in the early period of Kangxi porcelain in addition to living utensils outside the sacrificial vessels accounted for the majority, such as incense burner.The incense burner abdomen draws the lotus pattern many, the body under the implement is decorated with two blue-and-white edge line, or has opens the sharp inside book year money in front of the tap.Others, such as cave stone flowers, also with Shunzhi or late Ming style and treatment of similar, to the simple rate of extensive, natural flow-oriented.Er Ru
The words” Fu “and” Shou “and the auspicious patterns widely loved by the people also began to appear, the decoration of happy paintings tangled branches loose, but the wall of the instrument full of poetry is not seen.The early painting method generally has simple and smooth, full of life breath of the single-line flat painting method, but also has the painter delicate, thin and rigid flexible lines and caused by the shawl method.
Palace Museum, hidden Qing Dynasty Kangxi blue flower glaze, red inside with piano, visit friends, garlic bottle.
In the middle period of Kangxi, the traditional fine painting method was adopted in the painting of decorative patterns to convey the spirit.The landscape does the axe to split wrinkle more, and participates in with the perspective principle, has made the picture and the color cooperates to achieve from the language to narrate a certain realm, extremely harmonious unification.The features in the decorative features of the animal, ice plum, sycamore plantain, bogu, female drama and characters and other stories.In addition, in the wall, especially the pen-holder on the whole article, such as” Tengtu preface “,” before and after the Red Wall Fu “, and so on, also began to appear.
By the late Kangxi period, the decorative techniques of blue-and-white porcelain were similar to those of the previous ones, but the patterns tended to develop locally, and the landscape characters were reduced to a certain extent.And along with the social stability, the common people’s state of mind also tends to be peaceful, on the picture appeared such as” the plow weave picture “,” the fisherman’s joy “and so on pattern.
Palace Museum, Qingqing Kangxi blue and white, dragon pattern bottle bottom
4. The characteristics of style and knowledge
The porcelain at the end of the original period when the Ming Dynasty Yongle years, although some of the porcelain in the Song Dynasty to see the base of the “grand view”, “politics and” the name of the year, it should be its origin.
In the early period of Kangxi, the imperial court was afraid that the porcelain would be damaged and abandoned in the waste land with the name of the year of this dynasty.As a result, there are few people with this year’s money.However, the name of the hall, the name of Ramadan and the deposit of flowers are very popular, and the objects painted on the outer bottom can also be seen, but the sacrificial vessels in the outer wall can occasionally see the annals.Those who write the most are those who write the year before the dynasty.
In the 19th year of Kangxi, the official kiln of Qing Dynasty was founded, and it also entered the middle period of the development of Kangxi blue-and-white porcelain.At the same time also began to write a large number of the year, for the six-character “Daqing Kangxi year.”The four-character “Kangxi year” of the blue and white regular script, the average book in the bottom and the heart, which can be seen in a single circle, double circles; no circle, two sides frame, double long square frame, concave carving, relief carving, regular script, cursive, six characters three lines, six characters two lines, four words two lines, and so on, but also see the free chapter, double circles no words, The name of the Tang Dynasty, Ji language, such as the painting of autumn leaves, group cranes and other banknotes, as well as completely no money.
The payment for painting at the bottom of Kangxi blue and white porcelain
By the late Kangxi period, the figures in the blue-and-white porcelain were varied and varied. In addition to the existing articles with the original age, there were also a number of years of years, auspicious terms and a large number of names, and the name of Yai appeared at the bottom of the objects.Famous such as” Kangxi Xinhai peace church system “and so on.Graphics are also available to gamblers.
1. Modeling Features
Kangxi blue-and-white porcelain has a rich and colorful shape, a variety of objects, the complicated crown of the instrument type in the Qing Dynasty.The shape is also divided into two types of cutters and round tools, the name of objects according to its use, changes in the shape of the instrument, the change of the times and different names.Xu Zhiheng in “Yin Liuzhai said porcelain” in the cloud: “The ancients with wine, for the pleasure of god. Allowing to worship, like, the source of the far, the power of the same. Respect and change into a bottle, for flower arrangement, clearing up, almost after the fate. The mouth of the mouth is the same as the respect, the mouth of the bottle. “Then the world began to cry at will, and the jars and the deities became one.”
The overall style of Kangxi blue-and-white cutters is old, heavy, strong lines, hard turning, low center of gravity, relative to the whole Qing Dynasty, the shape of objects appears thin and tall.In the course of the evolution of Kangxi blue-and-white cutters, the shape style of the cutters is gradually moving down the center of gravity, especially the bottle and the object of respect are the most obvious.In general, the downward shift of the center of gravity is easy to make the body form flow in bloated, but, Kangxi blue and white porcelain very well overcome this defect, not only to maintain the shape of Kangxi porcelain looks tall thin style, and from the visual appearance of a sedate and dignified effect.
Kangxi round utensils from the overall model, pay attention to the stable, stable, especially the bowl-type artifacts, the center of gravity is relatively low.There are many kinds of utensils, such as skipping, straight mouth, buttonhole, deep abdomen, shallow abdomen and so on, but no matter what kind of bowl, diameter and bowl height are in a certain proportion range, they all pursue stability.For example, Kangxi Qinghua hat bowl, its characteristics are large mouth, small feet, intuitive sense of instability, but because of the use of the use of oblique and shallow straight abdomen, the height of the bowl down, also eliminate the factors of instability.This is also an important feature of round ware porcelain molding art in Kangxi period.Kangxi blue and white double circle full market is a representative work in the disk type utensils.”Yin Liuzhai said porcelain” Described: “… Kangxi market most of the double bottom foot. Double bottom foot, foot circle there is a deep ditch, the ditch and then back foot. Then even the bottom.” This large market double circle foot, the inside of the foot is not on the ground, so, to a large extent, is only a very characteristic decoration, This kind of decoration is also a kind of creativity under the premise of pursuing the stable and stable shape of objects.
Kangxi blue-and-white porcelain circle foot, its shape is also very characteristic.Because of the delicate, firm and highly plastic fetus of Kangxi porcelain, the circle of objects in Kangxi period was also varied.Common have flat cut foot, oblique cut foot, inside straight outside inclined foot, two-layer bench foot, double circle foot, round foot, grooved foot and so on, of which two-layer table foot and grooved foot are mainly used in cutters type objects, double circle foot is mainly decorated on the market.
2. Color Decoration Features
Kangxi blue and white flowers are famous mainly for their excellent color, and the color of blue and white mainly depends on the quality of blue and white materials.Tang Ying in the “Tao Yetu said,” recorded: “porcelain blue and white, Ji green large glaze, with green material. Out of Zhejiang Shaoxing, Jinhua two houses belong to the mountains. Collector into the mountains get material, floating in the stream to float the earth. Its color black yellow, large and round for the green, the top round son. Carrying to the town, Buried the kiln for three days, Take out, Re-wash the beginning of sale. Its Jiangxi, Guangdong mountain producers, Color thin not fire-resistant, Only can draw rough. “Historical data show, Kangxi Qinghua use of mainly Zhejiang materials, Less Yunnan pearl material.”Blue and white color, in addition to the quality of green material, but also to see whether the mix of cobalt, manganese, aluminum in green material, properly configured, blue and white hair color will be bright and gorgeous; improper configuration, blue and white hair color appears gray or black.
The early, middle and late tonal variations of the Qinghua of Kangxi are very large, and the process of its change is basically the development of gray _ dark _ bright _ dark, and the peak period should be the middle period of Kangxi.During this period, porcelain craftsmen have mastered the method of collocation of green materials, burning out the well-known “multicolored blue and white”, that is, with only one kind of green materials can render the dense, yin and yang to the back of the scene, making the picture very three-dimensional sense, To achieve the unique Chinese painting “green (ink) divided into five colors” effect.Also because of its bright color, so it is called “emerald blue” and “sapphire blue”.Chen Liu in “Tao Ya” once sighed said: “Its blue and white one color, see deep see shallow, there is a can and divided seven colors, nine colors more, delicate and delicate…”
The painter of Kangxi Qinghua is excellent, its painting technique is consummate, the subject matter is extensive, the Chinese painting technique such as ax chap, hemp chap is widely used in the painting of Qinghua.Especially the use of “water separation method”, make the best green materials are fully displayed.”Divide water method” is according to the Chinese painting in the ink-and-wash painting creates a kind of rendering technique, according to the green material water thick and weak, divided into “head thick, is thick, two thick, is weak, shadow light” several levels of rendering painting.This technique can be more reflected in the painting of landscape characters, making the images of distant mountains and waters clear, pavilions cloud-shrouded, immortal characters lifelike.This technique had already appeared in the Ming Dynasty, and was not fully used until the Kangxi period, and reached the peak.
In the aspect of figure decoration, the figure painting of Kangxi Qinghua was deeply influenced by the literati painting in the late Ming and early Qing Dynasties.”Yin Liuzhai said porcelain” cloud: “People like Chen Laolian, Xiao Chi wood, landscape like Wang Shigu, Wu Mojing, flowers like Hua Qiuyue.” Other like Dong Qichang, Liu Panyuan, and other painting style of Kangxi Qinghua figure decoration is not without influence.In painting subjects are all-inclusive, the most prominent is the reflection of secular life, full of local flavor, such as mountains and rivers, with friends, flowers in the jungle, fishermen, farmers, farmers, women, Dao Ma, and so on.His” story of characters, new and different, the waves of the interpretation of the extremely difficult, generally all derived from the novel, but all of the history of Dan Qing painting is consistent with the…… Kangxi female, its painting shoes delicate people, elegant people despicable, and the value of thousands of gold… Those who paint war stories are the Dao-Ma people, no matter the porcelain products of the Ming and Qing Dynasties, who are very fond of the West.Xu Zhiheng’s words not only highly appraised the painting level of Kangxi Qinghua, but also pointed out the style and market value of Kangxi Qinghua’s former Ming literati paintings.
In the aspect of landscape decoration, the landscape decoration of Kangxi Qinghua not only follows the style of Wang Shigu, Wu Mojing and other Ming and Qing dynasties, but also the traditional techniques since Song and Yuan Dynasties. In order to divide the water to carry on the yin-yang back and the thick and weak appropriate rendering.During the painting with characters, in the mountains and rivers, such as a number of old chess, autumn mountains grass Lu, the eastern slope of the ancient view of the waterfall boat, and so on, the painted characters appear to look relaxed and quiet, fun.In the appreciation of a Kangxi Qinghua landscape character works, often make people feel that not only in the pure appreciation of a piece of porcelain, more is in the appreciation of a fine ink landscape painting.
Animal decorative aspects, dragon and phoenix patterns in Kangxi officials, kiln are common.Among them front dragon’s characteristic is more obvious, head is more square, forehead is wider, forehead often writes a “king” word, appearance is fierce, show teeth dance claw.The phoenix pattern many coexists with the dragon grain, has a dragon a phoenix, a dragon double phoenix and so on.Animal embellishment is often combined with other flower and stone embellishment, such as squirrel grape, bird and phoenix, crane deer with spring, happy eyebrow, kylin banana and so on.”Yin Liuzhai said porcelain” cloud: “Kang Yao painted monsters, the most vivid. Hiss spray, Mao Shan Shan (san) desire to jump, really god.” In fact, not only painted monsters so, Kangxi when painting animal patterns are basically both shape and spirit, vivid.
Flowers and plants decoration also such as Xu Zhiheng said that “old and unmatched, like Hua Qiuyue also.”Traditional twining and folding patterns are still used, but they are more realistic in painting techniques.The edge of a petal is often characterized by a week’s whiteness.This period of ice cracks in the Kangxi porcelain, its green material for the ground, to render the method of drawing out ice cracks, and then add to the blooming plum blossom, fun, and sometimes with the opening light techniques, adding some rocks, animal patterns, and so on.In the late Qing Dynasty to the Republic of China, this kind of decorative pattern was widely copied, but no longer Kangxi’s charm.In plants and flowers are often accompanied by butterflies, bees, bird lines and other embellishment.
In the Kangxi period, it was also popular to decorate with the techniques of brocade, cross brocade, plum blossom, date flower, ice crack, etc.Long text decoration was also popular in the Kangxi period. For example, some of them are decorated with words all over the body, some are written on one side, while others are painted on the other side. This kind of decoration mainly appears on the big pen.
Generally speaking, the outstanding artistic achievement of Kangxi Qinghua was praised by later generations. “Yin Liuzhai said porcelain” was compared to poetry by porcelain and said: “As for Kangxi, as for Li Du, nothing is beautiful but old, pure and unrestrained.” Chen Liu’s” Tao Ya “also said: “The green flowers of the Yong and Qianlong dynasties did not catch the Kang kiln. However, although Kang Qing was not as beautiful as the Ming Dynasty, it could also walk alone in this dynasty.” In fact, the Ming Dynasty Yong, Xuan Qinghua although “Nongmei”, but in the rendering of decorative layers, blue and white hair color of the bright bright bright but far less than Kangxi, In this respect, Kangxi Qinghua is not only a “unique step of this dynasty”, but also can follow the history of Chinese ceramics, Chen Liu said only because of the aesthetic perspective of different times and aesthetic differences.
Kangxi blue-and-white porcelain of the body as thin as glutinous rice, such as stone like jade.This is directly related to the composition of porcelain clay used in Kangxi and the fine grinding and elutriation process.Kangxi porcelain tire is very pure and white, dense, body weight, generally speaking, its proportion is larger than other period of the Qing Dynasty porcelain.In the porcelain glaze aspect, the Kangxi period multi-purpose powder white glaze, the paste white glaze and the bright blue glaze.The glaze layer of this period, whether thick or thin, is combined with the body very closely, which is difficult to do later imitations.
Kangxi Qinghua glaze is also very characteristic, especially round utensils, if the body is bright blue glaze, the bottom is applied white glaze powder or paste white glaze, and the bottom of the glaze is thin, you can see through the glaze of the body seems to be visible on the thin spiral marks, and in the glaze left on the very small bristles eyes.
Guangxu imitation Kangxi
Although the late Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China have been the appearance of Kangxi imitators, but the painting of the law has no longer appeared, Shan Shi multi-dip green paint brush layer by layer to show, trees are used to replace the method of parallel oblique lines, there is no genuine expression of the undulation of mountains, layer by layer of forest dye level, And the pen is weak, no Kangxi Qinghua style, imitation three is not like, not to mention the color level of the blue and white.