The blue-and-white porcelain of the Ming and Qing dynasties is precious, and the yellow-earth blue-and-white porcelain of the Ming and Qing dynasties is more precious.
Color has a special meaning for ancient peoples.
For example, Chinese Han people like red and evil white, red for the festive color, white for the funeral color.For the nomadic people in the north, white is the color of great luck.Mongolian vulgarity is still white, to blue sky white cloud color for the most beautiful.And blue, in the Han culture, more on behalf of the ghost, is nothing happy.
Yellow, homophonic royal color, the Chinese known as the emperor’s special color.The history of Yuan Dynasty. The Prohibition of Ding Hai in April,1336, “No Kirin, Luanfeng, White Rabbit, Ganoderma lucidum. Two-horned five-claw dragon. Eight Dragons. Kowloon. Wan Shou. Fu Shou. Yellow ocher, etc.””It can be seen that yellow had become the royal color of the Yuan Dynasty at the latest, and that the courtiers were not allowed to use it.But at this time yellow is not full of clear that bright yellow.
The Qing Dynasty palace, the yellow glaze porcelain use, has the strict grade cent.Qing Dynasty, “Palace History of the Kingdom” volume 17 records: Empress Dowager, the Queen with inside and outside the yellow glaze;The imperial concubine uses the yellow glaze white lining implement;The imperial concubine uses the yellow ground green dragon article;The concubine uses the blue bottom yellow dragon implement;You use green-belt purple dragon ware;Often use green land red dragon implement.From this we can see how strict the use of colored glazes is in grade.
Yellow ground blue-and-white porcelain was created in the Ming Dynasty, is a combination of low-temperature yellow glaze and high-temperature underglaze blue-and-white porcelain technology.The method is made by filling the white glaze with yellow glaze and baking the red furnace at 850 ℃-900 ℃.
Qinghua flower pattern plate unearthed in Jingdezhen Imperial Kiln Factory
excavated from Jingdezhen Imperial Kiln FactoryXuande yellow ground blue and white flower pattern plate
In the Qing Dynasty, “Nanyao Notes” said” Xuande has green flowers to fill the yellow land, “that is, refers to this process.After the Ming Dynasty, there was a large amount of burning in Chenghua and Hongzhi dynasties.The Qing Dynasty Kangxi and Yongzheng dynasties burn yellow ground blue and white flowers, the shape of the decoration is more rich, at this time of the official kiln blue and white especially in the blue and white, that is, yellow ground blue and white porcelain is the most valuable.”Yao Ya” on the paper has a comment “yellow green, Yongzheng kiln of the attention, the bandits are alone, the bottle also has it.”
This glaze technology has been produced since Ming Xuande, and it has become an important kind of cultural relics of the three generations of Kang Yongqian.Among them, the most novel cultural relics of Yongzheng blue-and-white yellow glaze are the most original ones.The yellow glaze blue-and-white cultural relics of the Qianlong period were more common, which was inseparable from the efforts of Tang Ying, the governor of the court at that time.In the Republic of China, Huangdi blue-and-white porcelain ware was more expensive than ordinary blue-and-white porcelain artifacts. At that time, yellow glaze was hung on Xuande blue-and-white porcelain for profit.
The cultural relics of yellow glaze and blue-and-white porcelain in Xuande period are very rare.From the technical development of ceramic firing, there should be a kind of yellow-bottom black-flowered porcelain at this time, but it has not been found that there is this type in the collection or handed down products.
The so-called yellow blue-and-white, meaning that the yellow glaze directly poured on the blue-and-white porcelain, rather than using the method of white, exposed blue-and-white primary color does not cover the secondary glaze techniques.This technique is simpler than using yellow glaze to fill a blank on a blue-and-white porcelain, and there is no defect in filling color. In theory, it is cleaner and more delicate than a yellow-bottomed blue-and-white porcelain.
In the Yuan Dynasty, there appeared the black-flower porcelain relics in the malachite green land, and in the Xuande dynasty, there were also black-flower porcelain relics in the malachite green land.It is to use malachite green low-temperature glaze directly on the white-bottom blue-and-white porcelain and then into the kiln two low-temperature fired products.Yellow ground blue-and-white porcelain, in theory, should first be fired by the mature malachite green black-flower porcelain technology, and then at the request of the emperor, before switching to a more complex yellow glaze fill the empty yellow ground blue-and-white process.This is one of the important basis for the author to infer the existence of the black flower porcelain relics in Huangdi.
Furthermore, some scholars have shown that most of Hongwu blue-and-white porcelain relics are black and grey, which is probably the reason why Hongwu emperors did not like blue and black.Blue and white blackening is a defect, mainly because the kiln temperature is not high enough to burn green temperature (1280 degrees or so).The porcelain kiln technology of Hongwu period in the early Ming Dynasty, on the basis of burning out the beautiful blue bottle of Davidian elephant ear in the Yuan Dynasty from 11 years ago, the possibility of a large-scale decline is very unlikely.After all, from the Song Dynasty Ding kiln,1300 degrees of high temperature for Chinese porcelain craftsmen have been nothing difficult.
excavated from Jingdezhen Imperial Kiln FactoryHemerocallis lanceolata with yellow ground in Ming Xuande
excavated from Jingdezhen Imperial Kiln FactoryMing Xuande yellow ground blue-and-white grape plate
Therefore, in Xuande period, if there were yellow glaze and black flower porcelain (blue flowers appeared under yellow glaze), it should be a matter of course and convention.But Xuande period porcelain cultural relics have been around 600 years ago, preserved cultural relics do not exist a hundred, this possibility is only waiting for later generations to find yellow glaze black flower porcelain to appear.
All the blue-and-white porcelain relics of the Huangdi Dynasty are usually made by the official kilns, and there is no folk culture.The low-temperature yellow glaze is still the empty door for the identification of porcelain relics in Ming and Qing dynasties. Because of the lack of authentic materials of cultural relics in the collection for research and comparative analysis, the distinction between the yellow glaze relics in the dynasties is still in the high-precision field.Huangdi blue-and-white porcelain, because can borrow each dynasty blue-and-white porcelain cultural relics of different identification characteristics, so it is far less difficult to identify than yellow glaze porcelain.