Ming dynasty blue-and-white porcelain appreciation of Zhen (Chengde Summer Resort Museum collection)
After more than 400 years of slow development, the blue-and-white porcelain reached maturity in the late Yuan Dynasty, and then developed with vigorous vitality.During the Yongle period of Ming Dynasty, the blue-and-white porcelain became the main product of China’s porcelain production and export, which lasted until the Qing Dynasty.The blue-and-white porcelain, with its white and delicate embryo glaze, beautiful blue and white colors and elegant and popular decoration patterns, is popular among the Chinese people and the people all over the world, especially Mingyongle and Xuande blue-and-white porcelain, which are the focal points of the collection of the major museums in the world, and is also the target of the collectors in the shooting arena.The Ming Dynasty blue-and-white porcelain collected by Chengde Summer Palace Museum is of high quality and distinctive features. This paper only chooses some representative objects to show the style and characteristics of several important historical periods of the Ming Dynasty official kiln.
Yongle and Xuande period of green flowers
Yongxuan Qinghua is another peak after the Yuan Qinghua, there are “all the best, the most expensive blue and white” statement.During the Yongxuan period, Zheng He made seven trips to the West, and brought back the “Su Ma Li Qing” cobalt ore green material used to make blue and white porcelain. This kind of green material contains low manganese content, high iron content, bright and bright green flowers after firing, and black spot marks with metallic luster. This color has become a major feature of the evergreen blue-and-white flowers.Yongxuan blue-and-white fine quality of the fetus, glaze layer Yingrun thick, glaze color mostly white in the pan-green.On the pattern decoration, Yongxuan Qinghua changed the dense layout style of the Yuan Dynasty, which appeared to be sparse, with flowers, melon and fruit as the main decoration, and fewer flowers, birds and characters.In painting, changes in the Yuan Dynasty and Hongwu period of a point painting style, the use of double hooks fill color, and with small pen fill, make blue and white color has deep and shallow different strokes mark, this has also become an important feature of the Evergreen blue and white.Yongxuan blue and white flower shape variety, in addition to the common plate, bowl, plum bottle, jade pot spring bottle, there are some new device type, such as treasure moon bottle, no stop, flower pouring, octagonal candlestick (Editor note: Tang Changsha kiln fired octagonal candlestick), sleeping pot, and so on, some of which have obvious exotic atmosphere, This is due to the prosperity of foreign trade and cultural exchanges, the Middle East, China and Western Asia, the import of Islamic culture, so that some blue and white porcelain production from the shape to the decorative impact.
Ming Yongle blue and white brocade double series large flat pot
Diameter 6 cm, back diameter 38 cm, height 43 cm, thickness 20 cm.Double lip mouth, mouth along the next week back lines, the neck wrapped with lotus lines, one side of the small ring nose can be connected with the cover.The lid is missing.Twin movable rings on both sides of shoulder.The pot has a round navel in the center.Peripot wall is decorated with sea water lines, the front from the outside to the inside are wrapped branch lotus, brocade and sea water lines.On the back light element, fine sand flat bottom, center inside concave, the edge place flint red is obvious.
Ming Yongle, blue and white, bamboo, stone, banana and plum vase
Diameter 5.6 cm, base diameter 12.5 cm, height 35.6 cm.Lip mouth, short neck, shoulder, tympanum, under abdomen gradually, shallow circle foot, fine sand bottom.The shoulder Ruyi cloud shoulder interior decoration fold branch lotus, the abdomen main body pattern is the bamboo stone plantain and so on garden scenery, the tibia adorns the back lotus to fold the branch flower pattern, its under decoration a week rolls the grass grain.This instrument glaze blue and white, blue and white hair and light, fine painting, has the charm of the Yuan blue and white.
Ming Yong Le blue flower tangled branch lotus flat bottle
Diameter 3.5 cm, base diameter 13 × 10 cm, height 31 cm, abdominal diameter 25 cm.Straight mouth, long neck, both sides of neck decoration Ruyi ear.Flat round belly, oval fine sand bottom.Neck adorn fold branch pattern, shoulder adorn treasure phase flower pattern, abdomen pass body adorn entangle branch passionflower pattern, tibia part for a week fold branch pattern.The composition of this device is sparse, delicate and delicate, comfortable winding, egg-green glaze and bright blue flowers into a fun.
Mingyongle blue and white flower ribbon bottle with gourd
This kind of instrument is also called treasure moon bottle or holding moon bottle, which was first created in Hongwu period of Ming Dynasty.Height 31 cm, aperture 3.2 cm.The neck and mouth are inverted bottle-shaped, neck and shoulders decorated with ribbons, ears, round abdomen flat body, oval shallow circle foot.The lower part of the mouth is decorated with a week of tangled branches chrysanthemum pattern, ribbon ear-painted fold flower pattern, the outer edge of the abdomen draws a circle of curly grass pattern, the center of the abdomen is eight flowers.The shape of this instrument in the Qing Dynasty Kang, Yong, Qian are imitation, but there is no Yongle beautiful shape, weight, blue and white hair color is also no Yongle rust marks.
Mingxuande green flower entwined lotus cover can
Diameter 17 cm, base diameter 15 cm, height 28 cm.Lip mouth, short neck, tympanum, circling foot.The top is covered with a beaded lotus heart knob.Cover face four ruyi cloud head pattern interior decoration fold branch flower fruit grain.The neck is decorated with flower pattern, shoulder is decorated with lotus leaf pattern, the abdomen is decorated with lotus flower pattern, and the shin is covered with lotus leaf pattern.Canister bottom blue and white double circle inside book “da ming xuande year” regular script.The ring flint red and clay sand are obvious.
The above 5 objects are all fine blue-and-white products in Yongxuan period. The body is firm and white, the glaze is smooth and thick, and the glaze is as bright as jade.Blue and white hair color is suitable for the partial flash of permanent special black spot spots.The natural and smooth painting represents the highest level of green flowers in Yongxuan kiln.
Cheng Hua, Hongzhi and Zhengde period
After the blank period of the porcelain production of the orthodox, Jingtai and Tianshun dynasties, from the beginning of Chenghua, the blue and white porcelain of the Ming Dynasty resumed production again, and had new development on the varieties, shapes and patterns, forming the unique style of this period.The three dynasties of Chenghua, Hongzhi and Zhengde played an important role in the development of blue-and-white porcelain in Ming Dynasty.The early blue-and-white porcelain of Chenghua inherited Xuande’s charm, and its tire, glaze, color, shape and decoration were similar to those of Xuande’s.The mid-term start style has changed greatly, blue and white materials used home-made equal blue, light color and no black iron spots, this color has continued to the late Zhengde.In the late Zhengde period, the blue and thick emerald and purple “Hui Qing” material blue and white, laid the basic style of Jiajing, Longqing and Wanli three dynasties.The shape tends to be delicate and handsome, big tools are few, when the development of honest and honest.The foetal quality is white and greasy, the body is light, the glaze is rich and moist, there is jade texture, and the glaze is white and blue and white.The embellishment takes the flower and the animal grain to be many, but also has the religious influence the embellishment, such as Sanskrit, the Arabic, the treasure pestle, the lotus Tuo eight treasure, the eight immortal lines and so on, the Zhengde period is particularly obvious.The drawing begins to outline the lines, and the lines are painted in a flat color.
Minghongzhi blue flowers entwined branches lotus pattern plum vase
Height 34 cm, diameter 8.5 cm, bottom diameter 13 cm.Straight mouth, mouth is bigger than ordinary plum bottle.Short neck, shoulder slip, tympanum, tibia adduction, flat sand bottom.The embellishment is divided into 5 layers from top to bottom, with two strings separated by diamond brocade, twining grass, twining flower, twining lotus and supine lotus.The abdomen has the obvious connection mark, the foot repair tire is not very regular, the iron spot in the fetus is obvious.This plum vase has been developed into a new style, with a moderate body thickness, pale blue and white hair, precise double-hook filling, thick glaze and strong jade texture.
Ming Zheng De Qing Hua Arabic Disc Bottle
The height is 29 cm, the diameter is 7.5 cm, the bottom diameter is 8 cm.Disc mouth, long neck, tympanum, tibia obliquity, high circle out of the foot.The fetal body is thick, the abdomen has the obvious joint mark.The outside of the mouth is decorated with triangular waves, the neck is bulged with a piece of leather, and the sides of the shin and foot are decorated with a lotus leaf and a roll of grass.The main body pattern of neck and abdomen is round and petal-shaped open light, in which Arabic is written.At the bottom of the double circle, there are “Daming Zhengde year” two lines of regular script style, the font is dignified, hard strokes.This bottle has the features of the times, such as neat shape, bright glaze and Arabic decoration.Green flowers have been using recycled material, opened the Jia, Wanqing nearly 100 years in the blue and purple style.
Qinghua in Jiajing, Longqing and Wanli periods
The blue-and-white porcelain of the three dynasties of Jiajing, Longqing and Wanli had different styles from those of the previous generations.First, the color of firing blue-and-white porcelain is used in combination with the stone-green materials produced in Jiangxi Province.This tone continued to Jiajing, Longqing, Wanli three dynasties, constitute a distinct characteristics of the times.Wanli late due to the cut-off of recycled green materials, the use of Zhejiang produced green materials, bright blue elegant.Secondly, the shape of the more rich, especially the Wanli Qinghua shape for the first Ming Dynasty, in addition to plates, bowls, various boxes, jade jug spring bottles, plum bottles, large pots, embroidered piers, flower wine, Wenfang utensils and other common goods, especially the prevailing square, prismatic vessels, such as the top round under the gourd bottle, Fang Sheng, Square cover box, square bottle, squash square can and plate.In addition, in the decorative aspect, the painting technique basically to outline the flat painting mainly, the pattern is clear, fills the color fine.Wanli period created the painting techniques of light-painted blue and white, with a very light tone double hook pattern, giving people a fresh and elegant feeling.The decoration subject matter is more extensive, besides the traditional dragon, phoenix, the flower grain, also common courtyard infant play, the fish algae bird, the lotus pond mandarin duck, the tree stone railing, the landscape character and so on subject matter.During the Jiajing period, because Jiajing Emperor believed in Taoism, there appeared a large number of figures reflecting Taoist content, such as Eight Immortals, Gossip, Yunhe, Ganoderma lucidum and various trees and fruit holding “Fu” and “Shou” characters.
Ming Jia Jing blue and white with dragon pattern bowl
Diameter 28 cm, base diameter 14 cm, height 11.5 cm.The mouth turns outward and circles the feet.General body to return to the green for the ground, the pattern of painting with white techniques, the interior decoration of a tangled pattern, the bowl, the outer wall for the dragon wearing patterns, white patterns with fine lines.Round foot decoration point-like plum blossom pattern, with green double circle on the bottom, inside the book “Daming Jiajing year” two lines of regular script.
Ming Jia Jing green flower top round bottom gourd bottle
Height 30 cm, diameter 8 cm, bottom diameter 12.5 cm.The whole is the gourd-shaped system at the bottom of the top circle, which is the first instrument of Jiajing Guan Kiln.The upper surface of the lower part of the bottle is painted with 4 groups of folded branches and flowers.Four outer walls with moire, circle flame and flame unicorn.Square flat circle foot, inside a week without glaze, the center concave into white glaze, both sides of the blue and white box has” Daming Jiajing year “double-line script.
Ming Wanli green flower wormwort pattern flower mouth plate
Height 6.5 cm, diameter 30 cm, bottom diameter 18.5 cm.The whole is five plum-blossom-shaped, wide mouth along the outer fold, deep abdomen, flat bottom, plum-shaped circle foot.The inner side is decorated with curly grass grain, the inner wall is decorated with 5 groups of folded branches and fruit, and the inner side is painted with peony grain, with bees, dragonflies and butterflies flying in the flowers, which is full of life breath.The outer edge is divided into 5 groups, which are divided into 5 groups. The inner part is decorated with miscellaneous precious lines and the outer wall is painted with twined branches and ganoderma.Ganoderma lucidum painting is more special, the umbrella is clockwise spiral curl shape, and several vertical lines.Under the heart of the two circles inside the book “Daming Wanli-year” two-line script.
The green flowers of Jiajing, Longqing and Wanli periods are thick and thick, the blue and white hair is thick and purple, the shapes and patterns of the paintings are quite special, and the styles of the paintings are different. Such as Jiajing gourd bottle, reflecting this period of porcelain modeling, decorative and graphic techniques of diversity.
The blue-and-white porcelain of the Ming Dynasty was rich and varied, simple and elegant, and many classic instruments were pursued for later generations.Blue and white hair color or rich or light, all blue and blue elegant, distinctive features;Glazed green white, rich and moist glaze surface, jade texture is very strong;Painting techniques or a point painting, or double-hook fill color or blue-and-white light drawing, are natural and smooth, without a sense of formality.