[Appreciation] Ming Dynasty blue and white porcelain: Read this is enough!
Blue-and-white porcelain began in the Tang Dynasty, with imported cobalt materials from Central Asia, and the use of three-color blue-and-white Tang has a close line.
In the Tang Dynasty, Fanxian kiln in Henan Province produced three colors of the Tang Dynasty and blue-and-white porcelain at the same time.
The blue-and-white porcelain unearthed in the Song Dynasty in Zhejiang Province was not as showy as in the Tang Dynasty.
It is similar to blue-and-white porcelain made in Ming Dynasty.
The blue-and-white porcelain of the Yuan Dynasty was popular at home and abroad, and the blue-and-white porcelain of the Yuan Dynasty had a high standard in art.
It provides a very good foundation for the development of blue-and-white porcelain in Ming and Qing dynasties.
The early Ming Dynasty to the early Qing Dynasty was the golden age of ancient Chinese blue-and-white porcelain.
Is the porcelain capital Jingdezhen underglaze color of the main products, its artistic charm of many ancient and modern collectors.
The collection of porcelain, “blue and white” is a topic, some collectors for the purpose of concentration, they only collected “blue and white” and less than other.
For decades, interest has been constant, we can see that blue-and-white porcelain is really fascinating.
The blue-and-white material is the stuff of the artists.
Mingjingdezhen blue and white materials, different periods.
Form a variety of artistic effects and perception.
In order to appreciate the blue-and-white porcelain of previous dynasties, we must first master the materials of his different periods.
The following is a brief analysis of the Ming Dynasty blue-and-white porcelain materials.
1. Hongwu, Yongle and Xuande Period
(1) Hong Wu (1368-1402)
Cobalt:It mainly uses domestic materials of different purity, but it also uses imported materials retained in Yuan Dynasty.
It can be roughly divided into three categories:
A, fresh bright light blue, the tone is stable, not faint, the strong decorative layer can also show the level of green flowers.
Ming Hong Wu blue and white clouds, dragon pattern plate, Palace Museum, Tibet
B, blue and white hair color light, rarely faint, the pattern often obvious dark dot irregular star cloth among them.Like a cluster of stars.
Ming Hong Wu Qing Hua twined flower bowl
C, blue and white color gray, glaze bearing gray milk color.
Because cobalt material contains high manganese impurities, so there is often a larger mottled black-blue, in-depth fetal bones, feel concave-convex.
Minghong-wu blue and white flower pattern pot
Before the 1980 s, the study was not deep and easy to be confused with that of the Yuan Dynasty. Now it has been clearly identified.
For example, the seal inscription of “Chunshou” in Shanghai Museum was originally made in Yuan Dynasty.
It is now corrected as” Hongwu has no porcelain “, which is more rare than the Yuan people.
Ming Hong Wu, Qing Hua, Yun Long, Chun Shou, seal book, Ming Mei vase, Shanghai Museum.
(2) Wing Lok (1403-1424)
Cobalt:There is divided into imported materials and high-quality domestic materials and imported domestic mixture.
Its performance is as follows:
A: Zheng He, the Sanbao eunuch, went to the sea from the Nanyang Islands. The cobalt material of “Suni Boqing” or “Su Mali Qing” made Jingdezhen located in the blue-and-white porcelain made from the official kiln of the Zhushan Mountain, which is very characteristic.
The embellishment with blue-and-white material has the influence of Islamic fine-grained culture: the lines are thick and thin, or both.
The use of a point painting techniques to show the color level of blue and white;
The effect is extremely gorgeous and bright, fresh and bright;
The crystal spots of high iron and low manganese are often found in the decoration.
Infiltration into the fetal bones, with hand touch can feel the concave-convex.
This is a natural halo phenomenon in high temperature of “Suni Brilliant” cobalt material.
Qing and modern imitations have a focus on dyeing, deliberate imitation.
You can’t touch the bump.
Because Su Nibo Qing has the characteristic of faint and scattered, so YongXuanqing Qinghua less painted characters, write more to go to work, flowers and birds, sea, garden and so on and received excellent rendering effect.
There is a typical Yongle Green Huren playing music dance pattern flat bottle can be called the best.
The past is” the eternal article does not distinguish “the present person sums up for the eternal article blue and white” the body is light, elegant, the grain is sparse “.
Ming Yongle, blue and white, happy with her eyes on the top of her eyes, holding the moon vase
Mingyongle blue and white sea water pattern censer-Beijing Palace Museum
B, another category, light and elegant color, few or even no cobalt-iron spots, for high-quality domestic materials and imported domestic mixtures.
Mingyongle blue and white waves dragon pattern prince cup, pallet height 8.1 cm, disk height 3.4 cm, bottom diameter 15.8 cm
(3) Xuande (1425-1435)
A, cobalt material is the same as Yongle.
The quality is different, but Yongle or a little better,
Blue and white materials Xuande when more imports of high-quality materials, more common use, more skilled, Yongle note-type, Xuande re-grain.
The number and variety of Xuande’s blue-and-white flowers in Xuande had a great influence on later generations.
Therefore has” the green flower first pushes the Xuande “the theory.The number of imitations has increased since Xuande.
The late ceramic expert Mr. Sun Ying, in the 1930s, has been able to accurately identify Yongxuan Qinghua.
The imitation Xuande Qinghua is very successful, Wei Miao Xin Xiao, shape and spirit of both, this time Mr. Huang Yunpeng Jingdezhen chaired the “Yellow Kiln” and Xiong Shi, Xiang Shi and many other kiln mouth, high technology.It is widely spread at home and abroad.
Mingxuande green flower twined flower lotus leaf cover can
More than three bowls of Qinghua, Xuande, Ming Dynasty
B, Domestic cobalt:The hair color is light, the blue is not stable, and has the stray glaze,
In early Ming Dynasty, blue-and-white glaze often developed blue-type, especially the light-colored blue-and-white glaze often confused with the glaze.
Such as rhombus mouth wrapped branch lotus pattern plate has this phenomenon.
Mingxuande green flower plucking white roll herbaceous fish basket style
C, imported materials Suni Boqing and domestic materials for use:Take its merits and its faults.
The hair color is bright, full-bodied and elegant mutual glow.
Full-bodied, dark blue or dark blue color;
Elegant person, the color is as dark as invisible clouds in the fog;
Also has the light bright tonal.
This two-in-one blue and white cobalt material, with a strong import material rendering-based, domestic materials for the auxiliary light drawing, the appearance of the effect of decorative layers.
Ming Dynasty Xuande Qinghua opera beads with dragon pattern and belly bowl
2. The three dynasties of orthodoxy, Jingtai and Tianshun (1436-1464),
For about thirty years, orthodox and Tianshun were the same emperor.
Jingtai for his brother, when the foreign race, social unrest,
Jingdezhen official kiln into the low dynasty period, or even stop burning, known as the history of the “blank period”,
Up to now, no official kiln china has been found.
People’s kilns still see some continuation of production,
In recent years, nine blue-and-white vessels unearthed in the orthodox strata are displayed in the “Yuan Ming Guan Kiln Porcelain Exhibition” of Jingdezhen Ceramics Archaeology Institute in Jingdezhen.
Include: Twin-ear vase on the fourth floor of tangled branch, eight-treasure-shaped bowl with tangled lotus base.
Kowloon straight wall bowl, Haitao pattern, Haitao white dragon plate, raybeast pattern lotus pool plate,
Sea bird pattern four shop head set, sea wave pattern cup, blue and white lotus pond mandarin duck pattern luxury bowl.
Ming Dynasty Orthodox Longwan, Jingdezhen unearthed
Cobalt:Most of them are made in China.
There is also Xuande left by the Sunny blue imported materials, rich color, strong cobalt iron spots, in-depth fetal bone.
For example, the new collection of the Li Guangqian Heritage Museum of the National University of Singapore is unifying Jingtai Qinghua People’s Pot.
Domestic materials in the early stage of the color blue in the black, the later color of the more elegant, iron rust spot halo less scattered.
Ming orthodoxy blue-and-white Kirin wing dragon pattern plate
Mingjing Tai Qinghua Eight Immortals Qingshou Lacquer
Qing Hua, Tianshun, Ming Dynasty, with Qin visiting friends, Tumei bottle
3. Chenghua, Hongzhi and Zhengde Period
(1) Chenghua (1465-1487)
Cobalt:At this point the imported materials have been used up, there is no import supplement.
Use home-made equal green material, light hair color and gray-blue.
The color is stable, light and soft, and has a far-reaching influence on the later firing of the blue-and-white ware.
Because the glaze is thick and moist (commonly known as pig lamb glaze), and make the blue-and-white pattern decoration is very implicit, a few because of blue-and-white and dark spots caused by strong.
Because of the appearance of the color and promote the techniques and varieties of light trace blue and white.
In Ming Dynasty, the most famous blue-and-white porcelain was Xuande and Chenghua.
Mingcheng colorful-winged dragon pattern sky-shaped can
The three generations of the Qing Dynasty, Kangxi, Yongzheng, Qianlong officials of the people’s kilns in a race to copy the situation, Shengji one in a row, the spread of good news.
During the period of Chenghua, after 30 years of orthodox, Jingtai and Tianshun turmoil,
“Social stability, economic prosperity and the resumption of production in the official kilns,”
Because the art appreciation level of Emperor Chenghua is quite high.
Painting also has considerable skill.
Blue and white and colorful unique, especially colorful, can be called the first Ming porcelain.
At this time, the kiln is also deeply influenced by the style of the official kiln, fine and fine production.
It formed the second peak period of Qing-hua in Ming Dynasty since Yongle and Xuande.
Mingcheng Qinghua Baobao Tripod Furnace
Mingcheng Qing Hua tangled branch lotus pattern gourd bottle
Chenghua Qinghua mountain stone flower cover pot
(2) Hongzhi (1488-1505)
Cobalt:Generally the same as Chenghua, the use of equal green materials, light and elegant hair color.
A few of them showed deep grayish-blue tones, close to the blue-and-white order of the Zhengde period.
People’s kiln blue and white is also the use of equal green, blue and light hair color, there is no elegant texture.
There’s a halo.
Another type, bold lines, rich hair color.
Hongzhi blue and white, the early sense of being neither red nor red, delicate stretch, more soft and elegant than Cheng Hua blue and white.
There are different works of the same tune.
In the later period, it was compared with Zhengde.
Ming Hongzhi Qinghua Maoshan Taoist painting three-legged incense burner
Ming Hong Zhi Qinghua lotus pond swimming dragon pattern bowl
With the continuous discovery of chronological objects, the style of Hongzhi’s blue-and-white flowers is gradually recognized.
The Great Vide Foundation Museum of the United Kingdom has a large bottle, 62.1cm high, with an outer opening along the side of the bottle. In Fuliang County, Raozhou Prefecture, Jiangxi Province, Chengjiaxiang disciple Cheng Biao Xi She incense pot vase three pieces are sent to Beijing Shuntian Guanwang Temple to provide special protection family Qingji trading share (Heng) Tong Hongzhi nine years early ten days of his disciple Cheng Cun two.
Rough decoration on the bottle, rich blue-and-white tone and chronology of the money, showing the Hongzhi period part of the kiln blue-and-white style.
The bottle is similar to another pair of large blue-and-white Longwen double-ear bottles from the Yuan Dynasty to the 11 th year of the museum.
Ming Hongzhi nine-year blue-and-white elephant ear vase
Hongzhi Qinghua is similar to Chenghua, and sometimes it is confused with Jingtai Qinghua in blank period.
In the 1980s some collectors saw Hongzhi Qinghua as a thing of the late Yuan and early Ming Dynasty.
Minghongzhi Qinghua twined ring-shaped ear vase
(3) Zhengde (1506-1521)
Cobalt:Early use of equal green, and Chenghua, Hongzhi Qinghua have the same place.
Most of them are light grayish-blue, though not full-bodied, but more stable and even.
In Chenghua and Hongzhi periods, in addition to the light elegant color, there are gray-black objects, there are very brown iron rust spots.
To Zhengde, this phenomenon is increasing day by day.
The blue-and-white flowers were scattered and the embellishment was blurred.
Don’t be regarded as Yuan and early Ming Dynasty, you must carefully observe.
This kind of multi-color stagnant weight, floating flow.
There is also a kind of blue-and-white ware with deep tones and no fading.
Ming Zheng De Qing Hua characters story pot height 28.6 cm, diameter 15 cm, foot diameter 17.7 cm, Palace Museum, Tibet
In the middle and late period of Zhengde, it was changed to Hui green material: also called Buddha’s head green,
Its source: “things blue beads” is:” between the Dadang town of Yunnan, the foreign ‘green back’.
“Hui Qing is a great youth in the western region, and the American is also known as Buddha Tau,” he said. “The input of green materials is a unified view of the Muslim countries in or outside Western Asia.”
“Hui Qing” can not be used alone.
It needs to infiltrate the stone green (also known as pebble green) to achieve a better effect.
In the middle and late period of Zhengde, the blue and white flowers were returned to the Qing Dynasty.
The kind of lavender that appeared similar to the one in Jiajing and the vivid rich dark purple.
The painting style evolves from elegant and elegant in the middle of Ming Dynasty to the bold and bold freehand style in the late Ming Dynasty.
Mingzheng De Qinghua sea water Jiangya should be dragon pattern three feet furnace height 27.5 cm diameter 27.9 cm foot diameter 28.3 cm Palace Museum
Ming Zheng De Qing Hua, Arabic Seven-Hole Placement-Taipei Forbidden City
4. Jiajing, Longqing and Wanli Period
(1) Jiajing (1522-1566)
Cobalt:Jiajing period, long burning, a large number of new use of the most distinctive recycled materials.
Chun Hui Qing, then dispersion and do not receive, Shi Qingjia more, then the color is heavy and not bright,
Each return a two plus a stone green money, said in the green, plus four or six points, said in the green.
The color of medium green is used for setting color, then the pen road is separate, on the green to mix water, then the color is bright (see “ancient bronze porcelain examination”) so mix cobalt material is different, the color of blue and white also is different.
Because the Jiajing potter improved the craft and controlled its scientific performance, he innovated a style of “characteristic secluded green”.
Jiajing blue and white flowers are thick and bright.Deep purple, often pattern outline of the pen and behind the cover of cyan, moisten into one.
It has formed the era characteristic of the fresh name.
Ming Jia Jing, blue and white flower, bird and plum vase
Colour can be divided into three categories:
A, The green flower color of Jiajing period is deep gray.
Black-blue tone, pattern has halo effect, similar to the late Zhengde, for cobalt in the green formula is too high than overpour or kiln fire temperature is too high.
An algal plate of blue-and-white croaker in the Ming Dynasty-the Palace Museum in Beijing
B, the medium-term blue and light blue color, and fine work.
To the Wanli, the more shallow, and the pattern lines are more compact.There is quite a legacy of success.
Ming Jia Jing green flower three sheep pattern bowl
C, late blue and white color fresh red hair purple, also known as” blue and gold blue “quite like the color of the lapis lazuli produced in Afghanistan.
In order to Jia Jing when the typical quality of blue and white, this recycled green material with stone blue material to produce the effect.
Ming Jia Jing Qinghua double dragon pattern cover can
Zhu Yan in Qing Qianlong thirty-nine years (1774) of the “Tao said” will be mentioned: “Jiajing Shangnang, the color of a lovely blue.”
From Yuan Dynasty to Ming Dynasty, Muslim culture and imports of cobalt blue and white materials have a close relationship,
Like a bridge and a link through the sea of silk and pottery road, connecting the East and West civilization and trade.
Mingjiajing blue and white fairy gourd bottle
(2) Long Ching (1567-1572)
Cobalt:Qinghua cobalt materials used in Jiajing, Longqing and Wanli periods are all recycled green materials.
The colors are similar, but the green flowers of Longqing, as a result of the refinement of the potter’s selection and skill,
The tone is very good, the color of the return is pure and fine, blue is purple.
It can be said that the fire pure green, ecstasy.
In the three dynasties of Jiajing, Longqing and Wanli, the achievements were the most remarkable, dazzling and rare.
Better than Jiajing, Wanli Qinghua one-step.
Dragon-pattern Lifting Pot of Green Flowers in the Ming Dynasty-Forbidden City in Beijing
Minglongqing blue-and-white cloud dragon pattern cricket jar
Kiln blue and white cobalt:Mainly used to return to the blue, the color is pure blue stability, another kind of tone in the light.
Blue and white tonal rich than the official kiln is no less.
The pattern decoration uses the Ming Dynasty popular outline point dyeing technique, compared with the official kiln, is more simple and free-flowing.
Ming Longqing Qinghua Juelu Royal Linghua Disc
Longqing blue-and-white porcelain pieces in Ming Dynasty
(3) Wan Li (1572-1620)
Cobalt:The early materials of Wanli blue and white flowers are the same as Jiajing and Longqing, and the color is basically the same as Jiajing and Longqing.
Is also blue in the pan-purple;
Thick, intense tones like those in Longqing are becoming increasingly rare.
The medium-term beginning to return to the green material disappeared, representing the stone blue, blue with gray, showing the color gradually shallow;
Late use of stone blue, dark blue gray, more halo scattered.
To the end of Wanli blue and white color even lighter, extending to the apocalypse.
Ming Wanli blue and white flowers, dragon and phoenix patterns, halberd flowers-Beijing Palace Museum, Tibet
Ming Wanli blue and white dragon in lotus and plum vase
Wanli period is the most common and the largest number of late period, foreign sales well-known at home and abroad, Europe, Asia, Africa, America have seen traces.
Southeast Asia Indonesia’s Badavia (today’s capital, Jakarta) is also a thriving center for Chinese ceramics and spices trading.
Coastal countries, but also a large number of sunken ships treasure waters, in recent years more in succession salvage found.
Mingwanli blue-and-white dragon pattern export porcelain plate
Mingwanli blue and white flower porcelain bowl for export
V. Apocalypse and Chongzhen Period
(1) Apocalypse (1621-1627)
Cobalt:The blue-and-white materials used in the Tianqi period are similar to those used in the late Wanli period.
With pebble blue mainly, blue and white color is varied, have ten thousand calendar time light trace blue and white,
Also has the pure gorgeous and the full-bodied tonal, has the Ming and Qing Dynasties transition period characteristic.
Some blue-and-white objects have a strong east neighbor to Japan and the wind is known as the “Japanese wind.”
Unique, unique mood of the two pen separate water (mixed water) techniques popular with the time blue and white materials very well.
Tianqi Guan Yao Qinghua very rare common for the civilian kiln products, sketching hasty freehand,
The blue-and-white porcelain of the Ming and Qing Dynasties is faint or brown, much like the blue-and-white porcelain of the Ming and Qing Dynasties.
And in the people’s kiln blue-and-white fine goods, painting chic, exquisite craft especially chic lovely.
Qing Hua Gu of Tianqi in Ming Dynasty
The following four common categories are:
A, blue and white hair color instability, painting lines and glaze confusion,
Unlike the blue and white flowers of the early Ming Dynasty, there is no infiltration into the fetal bones, no concavity, and Wanli kiln blue and white similar.
This kind of blue and white flowers are mostly religious offerings, such as incense burner, bottles, cans and so on.
B, blue and white tone light, stable color, blue and white light gray, drawing neat, thin lines.
The painting technique is similar to that of the late Wanli period.There are more shallow, affecting the Qing Dynasty.
C, blue and white tone rich, with pan-black and black gray,
Most of these are found in heavy blue-and-white ware, colored porcelain and money.
Most of its glaze is thin and blue.
D, blue and blue color light blue, bright, stable.
Its blue-and-white zexia is similar to the characteristics of the Wanli period.
In the craft and the pattern color, also has the Ming and Qing Dynasties excessive characteristic, most often appears in the canning type utensil.
Heroes of heaven and flowers landscape figure picture bottle
(2) Chongzhen (1628-1644)
Cobalt:With the use of stone green, bright color rare.
General hair color light, blue-gray.
Chongzhen to the early Qing Shunzhi, Kangxi years, there are a number of flowerpots, jars, the blue and white color of the pen, the water thick and weak.
Dye from the outline point to the axe chap method excessive.
It has the influence of the painting style of Chen Laolian in the late Ming Dynasty.
Ming Chongzhen Qinghua landscape Zhaojun pen case
There are four common blue-and-white colors as follows:
A, the most common, color gray and faint.Full-bodied in addition to the black spot, and early Ming blue and white natural generation of that black spot is different.
The faintness is serious, can affect the clear, fuzzy and indistinct pattern and figure knowledge.
At this time of blue vase, pot, stove, inkstone, dish, always visible.
Ming Chongzhen blue and white inscriptions on sea water dragon pattern furnace
B, the tone is pure, deep, the craft production is quite meticulous.
There are bottles, furnaces, cans, boxes, plates, bowls and other objects.
Ming Chongzhen 13-year blue and white Bogu vase
C, blue and white is stable, gray-blue or black-blue tone, similar to the kaleidoscope blue.
There are bottles, furnaces, cans.
Some Qingchu Shunzhi, Kangxi early kiln Qinghua also has a similar work.
Tomorrow, Kai-Chongzhen Qinghua, “the mountains and waters are cold three friends,” the pattern is inlaid with silver bottle.
The blue and white flowers are bright and bright.
The utensils of this kind of color include pots, pots, furnaces, flowerpots, jars and other daily articles and instruments.
The pattern draws the character story more, the flower bird hole stone walks the carnation banana and so on, the ming and qing dynasties transition period style is particularly obvious.
Mingchongzhen blue and white vase with high neck
In recent years, from Europe to China, Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan, Japan, Southeast Asian countries, the formation of a new wave of collection research boom.