Ming Chongzhen blue and white porcelain decoration features
Ming Chongzhen blue-and-white porcelain decoration has a wide range of topics and rich content. The pattern is rich and rich. Landscape painting is the most common subject of this period. The content is very rich in life. The painting has the charm of Chinese painting in the late Ming Dynasty. There are many ancient poems, huts, grass pavilions, pontoon bridges, fishermen, cowards, scholars, scholars, and literati. Love Chrysanthemum, Dunhuang Ailian, Zhulin Qixian, Tang Yin and other classics. Traditional themes include: cloud dragon pattern, phoenix bird pattern, phoenix pattern, unicorn pattern, lion peony pattern, crepe pattern, tiger pattern, cow pattern, horse pattern, crane pattern, fish pattern, rabbit pattern, pine deer, monkey pattern, Fish algae pattern, lotus flower pattern, scallop plum pattern, grape pattern, floral pattern, entangled flower pattern, baby play pattern, Luo Han pattern, knife horse character pattern, Fushan Shouhai pattern, Ganoderma lucidum to Bao pattern, knot hydrangea pattern, Eight Immortals , weeping willow, moon shadow, Bogu and so on. Chongzhen blue and white also has some unique decorative patterns, such as “Red Cliff Fu” full text and Dongpo tour red wall map, Rutin wild duck, goose palm (triangle) leaf peony, flat round large branching fruit, cloud foot inside plus point The word cloud, the variant flying silk dragon ribbon, the rain cedar ball strip, the vine-filled tangled grapes, the dead wood jackdaw, the blooming orchid flowers and so on.
There was no official kiln porcelain in the handed down porcelain of Chongzhen, only the folk burners, the general civilian porcelain and the export porcelain. Some of the feeders are quite fine, even reaching the fineness of the porcelain teeth of the Qing Dynasty. The glaze is slightly thinner, whiter, smoother, and the blue-and-blue color is very stable. There is also a kind of thicker fetus, thick carcass, thick glaze, glaze glaze. There are very tiny black spots in the glaze, and the blue and white colors of the blue and white are gray and faint.
1. Being good at drawing characters with the theme of characters is the biggest feature of Chongzhen blue and white porcelain decoration.
Although Chongzhen used to have many blue-and-white porcelain ornaments, the subject matter was mostly limited to the Eight Immortals, ladies, baby plays, and Gao Shi, while the celebrity blue and white porcelain characters were more widely used. The subject matter was eighteen Arhats and Suwu sheeps. , flooded seven army, immortal rider, Liu Hai opera Jin Yu, game map, brother Lian Fang, ladies and daughters, garden girl baby girl drama, dream map, crown into the Jue map, enter the map, Zhong Rong out hunting map, the East 朔 steal Peach, bath elephant map, photo with friends, moon palace map, etc.
In addition to the rich themes, the figures painted by Chongzhen Blue and White Porcelain also have two major characteristics. First, there are a large number of contents with the inspiration for the promotion of the official residence and the good fortune. For example, if a figure is drawn in the picture, a tray with an official hat is placed on the owner, and the owner is attached to the official. Some of them paint an official cap and a prince to offer the master. There are also some people who paint a character and hold a vase with three plaques for the owner, meaning the third level of life. There is also a painting bath figure, drawing a character holding a vase (meaning peace) dedicated to the owner riding on the back of the elephant (meaning auspicious), meaning peace and good fortune. Secondly, influenced by the highly developed print industry in the late Ming Dynasty, there are a large number of historical and dramatic stories based on prints and novel illustrations. For example, the Palace Museum’s collection of Chongzhen’s ten-year blue-and-white landscape pens is based on the Warring States period. The story of Lu’s robes. In addition, the Yangzhou Cultural Relics Store, the story of the blue-and-white flower characters, is based on the story of the seven floods in the Romance of the Three Kingdoms.
2, simple swirling dark engraved pattern
In the pen holder, lotus seed pot, cylinder and other devices, the proximal or the shoulder is a week and the foot is decorated with a dark embossed pattern under the glaze. Some are only simple swirls, which is one of the most remarkable features of Chongzhen blue and white porcelain. .
3, the background of the character story is painted with the sun or the moon
The owner of the picture often refers to the sun, which means that the day is rising. This kind of painting has always affected Shunzhi and Kangxi in the Qing Dynasty. We can still see this painting in the red pots of the Kangxi ten-year-old Xinhai and the blue-and-white glaze.
4, decorative drooping banana leaf pattern
The mouth of the bottle, lotus seed pot and other utensils decorate the inverted banana leaf pattern or the inverted flower branch, and some are the inverted city plaque. Tubes and other utensils are more than a few days below the mid-abdominal painted banana leaf pattern. The inverted banana pattern was first seen in the Wanli years. The Wanli’s inverted banana leaf pattern is more realistic and is found in the mouth of the bottle.Chongzhen’s inverted banana leaves are relatively simple, mostly in the form of large and small, and the leaves of the banana leaves are white, which is a decorative technique with the characteristics of the times in the auxiliary ornamentation of Chongzhen.
5. Valerian and Albizia
Almost all of these artifacts are painted with valerian and acacia trees. Why do people like to use valerian and acacia trees as decorations at this time? We found the reason in the book “Healthy Theory” by Ji Kang. Kang Shuri: “Acacia 免 (exemption) 忿 萱 萱 萱 忘 忘 忘 忘 忘 忘 忘 忘 忘 忘 忘 忘 忘 忘 忘. During the years of social turmoil in Chongzhen and Shunzhi, people used acacia and sedge to decorate them, so as to exempt them from the troubles and worries of war and natural disasters. The painted sedge is fish scale, and the leaves of the acacia tree are very small and dense. The small leaves are symmetrical and composed of a small branch, and then several branches are radially formed into a round shape, which is quite characteristic.
6, around the hovering moire
In the paintings of the body of the pen holder, the bottle, the lotus seed pot, the water bowl, the incense burner, etc., the moiré is often drawn around the circle, and some of the brackets are left in the body for a week. The cloud is very characteristic of the times. This kind of braces-like cloud has continued to Shunzhi. This feature can still be seen from the 14-year-old Qinghua figure in the Shanghai Museum.
7. The picture is often lined with travertine plantains and travertine flowers.
There are also some motifs such as unicorn plantain, flowers and birds, and bo Stone flowers. Legend has it that unicorn has no horns, so it is regarded as a beast and symbolizes auspiciousness. On the occasion of Chongzhen and Shunzhi, the social turmoil, the people suffered from the scourge of natural disasters, so at this time the porcelain is often decorated with unicorns, and thus seeks auspicious peace. Some of them depict unicorns and elephants on the same object (the elephant symbolizes auspiciousness), in order to express the desire to pray for good fortune, such as the blue-and-white unicorn banana pencil pen in the “Selected Works of Jinmingji Porcelain” and the “Hanhai 95 Autumn Auction” Blue and White Elephant Kylin Cylinder in Chinese Antiques and Treasures.
8. In the blank space of the screen, the title of the branch, the author’s font number and the imprint of the enamel, etc.
Influenced by the paintings, such celadons often use the literary inscriptions on the literary inscriptions, the author’s font size and the imprint of the enamel in the blank space of the picture. Individually inscribed verses, creating a precedent for the combination of poetry, books, paintings and prints in porcelain decorative art. The above-mentioned sea museum, Chongzhen, 16 years of blue-and-white Luohan figure pen holder blank space blue and white librarian inscribed “flying bird ruins” 蝉 retired shell. Dewed into a cockroach, Zhang Yucheng became a cockroach. When the meal is served, Jiuyang is the candle. The heart can change, the violation is unconventional.
9, the special pattern on the character’s clothing
Most of the clothing figures of Chongzhen blue-and-white porcelain are painted with “*”-shaped patterns. This “*” clothing is widely seen in other art fields such as Ming Dynasty paintings and prints, and has distinctive characteristics of the times.