Knowledge of Cultural Relics-The History of the Evolution of Blue-and-White Porcelain in the Dynasties
Tang Qinghua after the initial period, and did not develop rapidly, but to decline.Up to now, we can only see the Song Qinghua from two Taji site unearthed more than 10 pieces of porcelain.First, in 1957 excavated in Longquan County, Zhejiang Province, Jinsha Taji, a total of 13 pieces of blue and white bowl debris unearthed.The tower’s brick has an absolute chronology of the Northern Song Dynasty “Taiping Xingguo two years” (977); The other is in 1970 in Shaoxing City, Zhejiang Province, Huanchui tower, unearthed a blue and white bowl belly fragments.The pagoda, which was unearthed in Tataki, proved that the pagoda was built in the first year of Xianchun of the Southern Song Dynasty (1265).
These more than ten pieces of Song Dynasty blue and white porcelain pieces, are bowl pieces.Some of the fetal quality is thicker, some are finer.The embellishment has the chrysanthemum pattern, the circle pattern, the chord pattern, the line pattern and so on.Blue and white hair color before the more dense, black; after the more pale.The darker hair color, should cover transparent glaze too thin reason.Zhejiang province itself is rich in cobalt ore, and these blue-and-white porcelain should be using local cobalt.There is no direct continuation relationship between them and Tang Qing-hua.
The mature blue-and-white porcelain appeared in Jingdezhen in Yuan Dynasty.Because of the binary formula of “porcelain stone + kaolin”, the Al2O3 content in the tire was increased, the firing temperature was raised, and the deformation rate was reduced during the roasting process.Most of the body of the body is therefore thick, the shape is thick and full.The fetal color is slightly gray, yellow, the fetal quality is loose.The bottom glaze is divided into two kinds of white and egg white, opacification is strong.Its use of green materials include domestic materials and imported materials two: domestic materials for high manganese low iron-type green materials, bluish gray black; imported materials for low manganese high-iron type green materials, green and green color rich, rust marks.In part of the artifacts, but also domestic materials and imported materials used.The utility model mainly has the daily utensils, the supplies, the graveyards and so on, especially takes the bamboo knot high foot cup, the bearing apparatus, the graveholder most has the time characteristic.Except the jade pot spring bottom foot swing glaze, other utensils base more sand bottom does not have glaze, sees flint red.
The most characteristic of the motif of Yuanqing flower is that the composition is plump and multi-level.The strokes are smooth and powerful, while the sketching and rendering are stout and sedate.The subject of the decoration has characters, animals, plants, poetry and so on.The characters are Gao Shitu, historical figures; the animals are dragon and phoenix, unicorn, mandarin duck, fish; common plants are peony, lotus, orchid, pine and bamboo plum, ganoderma lucidum, flower leaves, melon and fruit; poetry is rarely seen.The peony peony petal leaves white edge more; Dragon for small head, thin neck, long, three or four-claw, back ridges, scale lines for more grid-shaped, vigorous and fierce.Auxiliary decorative for more than rolling grass, lotus, ancient money, sea water, back lines, cloud, banana leaves, and so on.Lotus petal patterns are like “braces”, often painted in lotus petal Taoist miscellaneous treasures; Ruyi moire often painted eight strange or broken branches lotus, twining flowers, painted third-order clouds; banana leaf stem for solid (filled with green material); sea water for coarse lines and thin line description combined.
Qinghua in Ming and Qing Dynasties
The Ming and Qing dynasties were the period when blue-and-white porcelain reached its peak and went into decline.Ming Yongle and Xuande period is a peak in the development of blue-and-white porcelain, well-known for its exquisite production;Qing Kangxi with “colorful blue-and-white” blue-and-white porcelain to the peak;After Emperor Qianlong of Qing Dynasty, because of the development of Pink-colored porcelain, it gradually declined, although it was in late Qing Dynasty (Guangxu) at one time, finally it could not continue the prosperity of Kangxi Dynasty.Generally speaking, this period of official kiln equipment production rigorous, exquisite;The kiln apparatus is random, free and easy, the picture is freehand.Starting from the late Ming Dynasty, the blue-and-white painting gradually absorbed some elements of Chinese painting techniques.
1. In early Ming Dynasty (1368-1402 in Hongwu Dynasty), the blue-and-white utensils have large and small plates, bowls, plum bottles, jade jugs, spring bottles, etc.The use of green materials to domestic materials, there is no exclusion of a small amount of imported materials.Blue and blue hair some light blue, some pan-gray.Some of the former have halos.The pattern decoration layout still has the Yuan Dynasty multi-layer decoration wind, the subject matter also does not change, but many details have changed: For example, banana leaves left white stem; petal leaves white edge than the Yuan Dynasty more obvious clear; Peony leaves” missing “the location of the more deep, not as big as the Yuan Dynasty; chrysanthemum painting into the” daisy “, The flower core is shown in checkered pattern; the dragon pattern is still slender, but in addition to three, four claw outside, has appeared five claw, claw shape like wind wheel, the momentum is not as fierce and vigorous as the Yuan dragon.Ruyi cloud head with auxiliary decoration was changed from the third-order cloud in Yuan Dynasty to the second-order cloud in Yuan Dynasty, and the lotus-petal pattern was painted with Buddha’s Babao (Taoist miscellaneous treasure in Yuan Dynasty).The bowl, the small dish draws the cloud air pattern more, only draws on the object outer wall the upper half.The object base is more flat cutting, the sand bottom does not have the glaze to see the kiln red.Without the annual payment, there are very few objects with the money.
Ming Hong Wu Qing Hua twined flower pattern bowl
Ming Yongle blue and white flower pattern broken basin
Mingxuande Qinghua three-fruit pattern jug
2. The blue-and-white porcelain of Yongle and Xuande (1403-1435) shows a high level of craftsmanship.This period uses the green material, mainly to the Su mud green, sees” the rust spot mark “. There are also some domestic green materials.But even domestic materials, hair color is also quite good.There are dishes, bowls, pots, cans, cups and so on.Especially, there appeared some non-Chinese culture instruments such as hat-pot, ribbon-pot and flower-pot, which reflected the cultural exchange and integration with the foreign countries and nationalities in this period.The pattern adorns many kinds of tangled branch or fold branch flower fruit, dragon and phoenix, sea water, sea monster, swim fish and so on.Fetal quality is finer and denser than before.Enamel is fat and moist, see orange peel grain more often.Compared with the utensils of the two dynasties, Yongle’s instrument type is thinner, beautiful, blue and white hair color is more rich, rust mark is heavier, the pattern is more sparse, the description is more delicate, the bottom glaze is more white, the utensil is more than no money, only see “Yongle year” four-character seal book.Xuande utensil body is thicker, the pattern is more compact, the bottom glaze is a little green, with more, there are four words or six words of the year, and “Xuande cloth whole body” said.Generally speaking, the number of Xuande blue and white flowers is large, variety is many, influence is wide, therefore have “blue and white first push Xuande” theory.
Ming-hua blue-and-white ball with flower pattern
Ming Hongzhi Qinghua Maoshan Taoist painting three-legged incense burner
Ming Zheng De Qing Hua characters set box
3. The three dynasties of orthodoxy, Jingtai and Tianshun (1436-1464) led to the economic recession due to political instability and natural and man-made disasters.And from the beginning of orthodoxy many times ordered the “ban on official-like porcelain”, so the number of porcelain in this period is small, known as the history of ceramics” blank period. “Generally speaking, this period is mainly a bottle, can, bowl, cup, disk and other categories.Some of the green materials used are still “Su-qing”.Blue and white hair color some of the rich, and Xuande similar to the instrument, some of the elegant, and the generator is closer.The glaze is grayish.The fetal body is heavier.Foot repair is not delicate, there is a sense of thickness; more shallow and wide flat sand bottom, some have sand phenomenon, some see flint red.In orthodoxy, the opening of the bottle is straight-necked, in accordance with the Xuande, while in Tianshun, it is shaped like a trapezoid, narrow and broad, close to the formation.The body of the jar and the jar is full shoulder, round abdomen, under close, feet slightly out; the body of the plum vase is longer than that of Xuande.The figure, flower, dragon and phoenix, peacock and so on.The background of the character is painted with a large cloud-like pattern.The bottle, the pot edge decoration likes to draw the sea water grain or the banana leaf grain, its banana leaf middle stem leaves the white, the leaf surface is wider, resembles the small tree general.In addition to the Chinese characters, there are also “Taiping New Year”, “Taiping”, “Daming New Year”, and so on; Tianshun has a calendar, Sanskrit, and so on.
Ming-hua blue-and-white ball with flower pattern
Ming Hongzhi Qinghua Maoshan Taoist painting three-legged incense burner
Ming Zheng De Qing Hua characters set box
4. Chenghua (1465-1487), Hongzhi (1488-1505) and Zhengde (1506-1521) were in the middle of Ming Dynasty.Chenghua and Hongzhi before the medium-term use of equal green, pale color.The late Hongzhi and Zhengde hair color gray-blue.But this period also has the individual article hair color is rich and bright, has the iron rust spot.Chenghua more light trace blue and white.Decoration layout of the early sparse, late dense, multi-painted three fruits, three friends, nine autumn, kaoshi, baby play, dragon wear flowers, and so on.The flowers and leaves are like the palm of the hand; The leaves are full of teeth, The flowers and leaves are not positive or negative; The algae are like seaweed; The rocks are like keys without concave-convex; The edge decoration is simple, The bowl, plate, cup and so on, The circle foot is only decorated with strings; The dragon is more than a dragon, The nose is long elephant trunk; Cross pestle, Arabic and other Islamic content of the decoration is common.The fetal quality is fine and white, the glaze pole is fine and moist has the jade texture, but is slightly green.The utility model has a pot, a plum bottle, a wash, a saucer, a saucer, a cup, a bowl, etc. The furnace is a three-breast-foot cylindrical or drum-shaped furnace.In addition to the word “sky” can, there are “daming into a new year” six-character single, double-line money; the main drawing items are Fang Sheng, silver ingots, and so on.
The early and middle stages of the instrument are roughly the same as the formation, and even more delicate and soft than the formation.The later period is close to that of Zhengde.The flower leaf pattern is fine and dense, Sanskrit pattern increases, the dragon grain is slender and soft, the character is free and easy.It has six characters and four characters of regular script.Zhengde still use domestic materials, the early use of equal blue, gray blue hair color.The later stage begins to be used.Some faint away.Its utensils of the type, fetal quality, enamel and Hongzhi close, dense bubble.Deep abdomen bowl, belt seat apparatus and so on popular.In the later stage, the large organ is more common.The common decoration has the phoenix to wear the flower, the fish algae, the lion embroideries the ball, the garden infant play, the tree stone railing, the lotus torus eight treasure and so on, the painting is more Hongzhi thick.When the bottom of the bowl is broken, the bottom of the bowl appears in the heart of the chicken.More see kiln bottom red, clay sand, jump knife marks and other phenomena.There are four-character and six-character script, each with the word “made”.
Ming Jia Jing Qing Hua Long through wrapped branches lotus pattern large plate
Minglongqing blue and white dragon and phoenix pattern box
Ming Wanli Qinghua scripture Guanyin Bodisattva picture bowl
5. In the three dynasties of Jiajing (1522-1566), Longqing (1567-1572) and Wanli (1573-1620) in late Ming Dynasty, the time of Jiajing was the longest, so the color of the objects in this dynasty was not the same.But this period is unique is the use of recycled green materials.In addition to the traditional decoration is still popular, taoist color of the decoration increased a large number, such as the cloud crane, eight immortals, gossip, taoist eight treasures.The character of the flower group is a unique decoration.In addition, there are baby play, kaoshi, fish algae, and so on.The head and forehead of the baby play are prominent.Tire and glaze are small size and large size.There are many big tools.Octagonal, quadrangular, hexagonal, round under the way of gourd bottle and other special-shaped devices are common.The chao zhu box has a unique shape for this purpose.The “system” and “construction” are both used, with the word “system” in the majority.The book “Jinlu Datian” is used as a sacrificial vessel.There are also Dongshu Hall, Dongluo Hall, and other Tang funds.
Due to the short time of the Longqing Dynasty, there were fewer objects, large tools and old-fashioned instruments.Green material with a return of green, stable color, pure, blue pan-purple (unlike Jiajing as strong purple). The decoration was similar to the Jiajing Dynasty.As a result of small parts mainly, the tire, glaze is more delicate.More hexagonal, octagonal and so on modelling.The official kiln ware has” Daming Longqing New Year “and” Longqing New Year “two kinds of knowledge, do not see the” system “; the folk kiln tools have” Longqing New Year “or” system “four-character money; the auspicious language has Wanfu Youtong, Fushou Kangning, and so on, eulogizing the words have rich and beautiful tools.
Wanli early use of Hui-qing, the middle and late use of stone blue and Zhejiang materials.A lot of light trace blue and white.In addition to the traditional decoration, it is also popular brocade, decorative layout is complex, the theme is not clear; in addition, the word for the FuLushou more than see.Bottle more see hollowed-out, sleeve live ring and other technology.In addition to the traditional type, the new appearance of wall bottle.Fetal quality is coarser, the glaze is white in spread blue.There are also “Daming Wanli Year”, “Wanli Year”, “Wanli Year”, “Wanli Year”, many fake trust funds, there are Xuande, Chenghua, Jiajing.Generally speaking, the technological level is backward.
Tomorrow’s Blue and White Rohan Furnace
Ming Chongzhen Qinghua People’s Sculpture Cylindrical
6. During the end of the Ming Dynasty (1620-1672) and the period of Chongzhen (1628-1644), because of political turmoil, the industry of ceramics was in a state of desolation.Apocalypse 19 years later the court did not order the creation of official kilns, so there are very few tools, “tomorrow to open the year” mainly, but also “Apocalypse the year”.In the kiln, the number of all kinds of drawings, the name of the Tang Dynasty, the number of auspicious words and the number of eulogizing words increased, such as jade beautiful objects, Wan Fu You are equal; many false trust items, such as Yongle, Xuande, Chenghua, Tianshun, Zhengde, Jiajing, etc.The traditional decoration is still the main decorative pattern, but the taoist content of the decorative pattern is less than ten thousand calendar time, the meaning of the rough rate.This period’s decoration is more sparse, the life breath is heavier.The characteristics of the times include thick body, loose quality, irregular shape, stick sand on the bottom of the device, collapse bottom, jumping knife mark and so on.
Chongzhen has no official instrument.In addition, there are bowls, cups, bottles, flower bowls and so on.The green material has the stone green, the Zhejiang material and so on.The hair color coarse person is more faint scattered, the essence is stable.In addition to the traditional decorative patterns, gaoxitu is especially common.The baby plays the picture child head big foot small proportion dissonance.The landscape figure picture (Gaoshi Tu) Mid-Autumn Festival grass, parenthesis cloud, small sun and so on for the typical characteristics.Fetal quality is sparse.Glazed white in brilliant green, some hair ash.
Forbidden City, Tibet, Qingshun, Qinghua Flower and Bird Covering Cave
7. The reign of Shunzhi (1644-1661) in the early Qing Dynasty was not long, but it was a crucial period to carry on the past and the future, laying a solid foundation for the peak of the later Kangxi period.Shunzhi blue and white utensils mainly have the following characteristics: less type, mainly furnace, wine, bottles, large and small plates, bowls, cans and so on.Generally speaking, the body of the body is rough, and the body of the large organ such as the furnace, the large plate and the ware is heavy and heavy, while the body of the small organ such as the small plate and the bowl is light and light.But there are individual objects fine, dense, visible glutinous rice-like.Glaze base more white in the brilliant green, some also show a little gray, thin glaze.The green flower material should be Zhejiang material and gravel green two kinds of use, resulting in hair color some green, some blue.Among them, the green color of the furnace hair green, other objects more gray blue hair color.The pattern adorns the common flower bird, the landscape, the cave stone, the autumn grass, the river boat, the monster, the lucky beast, the banana, the cloud air and so on.The market likes to draw a blue-and-white coil on the edge of the mouth, and then in the circle to paint the main decoration; small plate more in the disk side of a picture of a plane leaves, the other side of the book “sycamore leaves fall, the world is all autumn” and other similar poems.The bottle, the wine, the pot and so on big implement also likes to use the blue and white thread to make the pattern decoration the separation.Painting to outline, flat painting, rendering, line drawing combined.Painting style random, although more neat than the late Ming Dynasty, but still do not see Kangxi when rigorous, meticulous style.The picture layout is more plump, especially the big market, the pot, the bottle, the wine and other kinds of objects.There began to be changes in the shading method and the pastel color level, but not yet mature.Many flat sand bottom, such as bottle, glass, etc.Disk, bowl, can and so on bottom more common shrinkage point, foot sticky sand is more common.The bottom of the bowl is full of knife marks.There are many kilns, few official kilns, and very few articles of the year.
Forbidden City, Qing Dynasty, Kangxi, Qinghua landscape figure, covered with figurines
8. Kangxi (1662-1722) has a long time span, rich type of utensils and excellent craftsmanship.This period uses Zhejiang material and pearl material, blue and white hair color earlier than gray, medium-term after the blue and blue, bright bright and bright.In the early period of painting, single-line flat painting was the main method, and the momentum was rough. In the middle period, it was used to sketch, render, and paint fine, and it was highly praised for its blue and white colors (that is, the so-called “blue and white”). The decorative theme is varied, there are landscape characters, dragon and phoenix flowers and birds, fish, insects, animals, poetry, bogu, and so on, the most characteristic of the times is the ice plum, ploughing and weaving map, Dao-ma, Shuanghe peony and so on.The white edge of the pattern is more obvious than the other faces.The fetus is dense, white and glutinous rice cake-like.Glaze hard, and close to the fetal union, see orange peel or brown eyes, early white in brilliant green, bright white after the middle.In addition to the household utensils, a large number of ornamental porcelain, the typical device has covered pot, phoenix tail, vase, like the legs, pen, and so on.The base of the utensil also has the extremely strong time characteristic: The chopper many two-story table bottom; The pen tube many jade base; The circle foot early many is the two sides inclined the sharp “crucian carp back” bottom, After the medium period basically is the round “loach back” bottom; The large market kind many double circle bottom, This kind of bottom appears from the end of Ming Dynasty and Shunzhi, popular to the middle of Kangxi.There are many kinds of money, such as the early use of dry money, the annual use of regular script, after the mid-term various hall money, drawing money, the popularity of the deposit, and popular to Yongzheng.The imitation money, the pseudo-trust money also sees more, especially in the imitation Jiajing money.
Forbidden City, Qingyong Zheng, Qinghua dead tree bird, Tumei vase
Forbidden City, Qingqianlong, Qinghua, lotus pattern, Ruyi ear, flat pot
9. In Yongzheng (1723-1735) and Qianlong (1736-1795), the blue-and-white instruments were mostly imitated by Ming Yongle and Xuande’s Suma Leqing, but there were no imported materials, and the marks of rust were stained at the tip of the pen.The second is the imitation of the light trace blue and white.In addition to the Ming artifacts from the tire, glaze, green material and other aspects of the distinction, the type is also an important point of distinction: the tire interface is up and down, clear is front and back.
Yongzheng when fine technology, tire repair is exquisite, kiln is rough, there are swirling tire marks.During the Qianlong period, especially in the later period, the handicraft began to go downhill. In addition to inheriting the varieties of the former dynasty, there were also innovative varieties of Qinghua Linglong porcelain.The adornment content is also more varied than that of Yongzheng, but in general, it is mainly symbolized by auspicious patterns.
In addition to the New Year, Yongzheng when more see miscellaneous treasure money, four flowers, animal shape, and so on, the name of the less than Kangxi.Qianlong time Tang more than Yongzheng, more seal-style, there are four flowers.
Forbidden City, Qingjiaqing, Qinghua cloud, dragon pattern, Qi ‘er bottle.
Palace Museum, Qingdaoguang blue and white, eight treasures, lotus pattern, double ears bottle.
Forbidden City, Tibet, Qing Tongzhi, Qinghua folded branches, hydrangea pattern cover box
10. After Jiaqing (1796-1820), the blue-and-white porcelain gradually declined.The early pieces in Jiaqing were basically the same as those in Qianlong, but the craftsmanship was rough, the shape was heavy and clumsy, the glaze was thin and gray and green.Daoguang (1821-1850), Xianfeng (1851-1861), Tongzhi (1862-1874) were similar in general: blue-and-white hair floating, the quality of the fetus loose, thin glaze, the combination of embryo and glaze is not tight, the main decorative pattern is auspicious.
Forbidden City, Qingguang Xu, Qinghua children’s play picture bowl
11, Guangxu (1875-1908) when the blue-and-white porcelain once ZTE, imitation Kangxi higher level, but the body light, white glaze is thin and astringent, repair the tire is not fine enough.Other objects are similar to the same treatment regardless of glaze and shape.The blue-and-white feeding color ware is common.In addition to the annual figure, there are “Changchun Palace System”, “Kunning Palace System”, “Chu Xiugong Palace System”, etc.