How many kinds of “green materials” are used for ceramic knowledge of China’s blue-and-white porcelain?
Blue and white porcelain glaze name.A special name for white orchid china.The typical blue-and-white ware uses cobalt material to paint on the porcelain embryo, then a transparent glaze is applied, and it is fired at a time in high temperature.The orchid is under the glaze, therefore belongs to the glaze under the color.Blue and white porcelain pieces unearthed at the Tangcheng site in Yangzhou; Tang blue and white porcelain pieces hidden in Hong Kong’s Feng Pingshan Museum; gold-sand Taji (977) in the Northern Song Dynasty (977) in Zhejiang Province and Xuanchuanchun in the Southern Song Dynasty (1265) in the Song Dynasty (1265).The blue-and-white porcelain of the Yuan Dynasty was also found many times, such as the blue-and-white Guanyin images unearthed in the tomb of the 13-year-old Yuan Dynasty (1276) in Hangzhou.
In the 11th year (1351) of the Davette Foundation of the British Museum, Ming-hua Yunlong elephant-ear vase is a typical instrument of mature blue and white flowers in Jingdezhen, Yuan Dynasty.The porcelain tyre is white, the pure transparent glaze applied on the instrument surface, the blue and white color is very bright.The popularity of blue-and-white porcelain has changed the situation of celadon-based.Ming and Qing dynasties, Jingdezhen blue-and-white porcelain has become the mainstream of Chinese porcelain production.Ming Yongle, Xuande Second Dynasty, is the golden age of production of blue-and-white porcelain, its official kilns used for green materials, mainly imported materials, blue-and-white rich and black flaws.Chenghua Qinghua with home-made Pantang Green, more elegant.The late Zhengde and Jiajing Guan Kiln import back to green, the color is dense green.After the mid-Wanli, all domestic Zhejiang materials, to the modern side of the use of Yunnan pearl materials.Although the area outside Jingdezhen in Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties was produced, but the quality and quantity could not be compared with Jingdezhen, Yuanqing flowers were collected in Turkey, Iran, Indonesia, and the Philippines; Japan, India, Malaysia and other places were also unearthed.Yuan Wang Dayuan “island Yi Zhiluo” has been on the “blue and white porcelain” for export records.The output of blue-and-white porcelain in the Ming Dynasty was more common.In the sixteenth century, Chinese blue-and-white ware began to be imported into Europe.
That is, blue-and-white material, is the painting of blue-and-white porcelain and the preparation of blue-and-blue glaze color.Green material has chemical material, (purified cobalt oxide) and mineral material (cobalt earth ore) two, chemical material is the product of modern industry, China’s ancient porcelain used mineral materials.Cobalt earth minerals in Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Yunnan, Guangdong, Guangxi and other places.The appearance is black, lumpy and grainy.Its method, the early use of elutriation, in the late Ming Dynasty to start kiln calcination, in the removal of impurities, grinding, water and even, that is, into green material.Then the pen on the embryo, covered with transparent glaze, fired out of the kiln, the pattern is green and green, if not covered with glaze, the pattern is still black.If the green material is mixed into the glaze, it will become an orchid glaze.Green material contains manganese, cobalt, iron and other oxides, and blue is mainly the role of cobalt, so blue material also known as cobalt, history, Yuan, Mingjingdezhen blue and white, has used imported materials, such as early Ming Yongle, Xuande official kiln Su Ma Li Qing, Zhengde, Jiajing kiln Hui Qing.The difference between imported materials and domestic ones is that the iron-cobalt ratio is high and the manganese-cobalt ratio is low, while the iron-cobalt ratio is low and the manganese-cobalt ratio is high.
Su Ma Li Qinɡ
Su Ma Li Qing, also known as Su Ni Bo Qing, Su Bo Ni Qing, but different interpretation.According to the Ming Wanli year, “to see the days of the ride” Xuande years of the house burning porcelain, to “Su Ma Liqing” for the decoration, but also as” Suni Boqing, “the different phonetic interpretation of the obvious.In the Qing Dynasty, “Wen Fang Sai Kao”, “Tao Shuo” and “Jingdezhen Tao Lu” were also mistaken for “Su Boniqing”.According to the determination of cobalt-earth ore by Shanghai Silicate Research Institute, the content of manganese and iron in domestic materials is high.Therefore, the use of imported materials during this period is credible.Because of the high iron content, the iron rust often appears.Its origin, formerly known in Persia, but today Iran does not produce green material, probably near today’s Shulia.
Zhejiang’s production of green materials, also known as” Zhejiang Qing. “Domestic materials, this material is superior, heavy red, light green.Zhejiang also has Yuanzi, purple material, Tianqing and other varieties, among which Yuanzi is the best.Zhejiang materials produced in Zhejiang Shaoxing, Jinhua area.From the middle period of Wanli in Ming Dynasty to the early period of Qing Dynasty, all the blue-and-white porcelain of Jingdezhen official kiln were made of Zhejiang.
One of the green materials of Zhejiang Province.According to the Qing[Nanyao note]: Zhejiang materials have Yuanzi, purple material, sky and other tastes, including Yuanzi for superior.Tang Ying[Tao Ye Tu] said that; Green material from Shaoxing, Zhejiang, Jinhua, two houses in the mountains, a big and yuan of black and yellow material is high-grade blue, the name of Yuan Zi.Doubt means money.In the early period of qing dynasty, jiangxi jingdezhen official kiln blue and white with this material.
Hui Qin’s acid
A type of blue pigment imported from China.Painter used to dye, produced near the copper mine, which contains copper oxide.Imported green material name, containing cobalt oxide, also known as pottery back to green.According to Wang Zongmu, chief secretary of Jiangxi cloth in Jiajing, in[Dazhi Tao Book of Jiangxi Province], “Tao Hui Qing, this foreign tribute is also recorded. Jiajing in the middle of the encounter with the imperial instruments, the development of the Ministry of Industry, Jiangxi Chief Secretary’s library to give”, if the green flowers with pure recycled material, the color of dark blue and green, dispersion does not receive, Therefore, it is often used in combination with domestic pebble green.See “On the Youth” and “In the Youth”.Hui Qing: porcelain glaze name, Ming Dynasty Jiajing _ Wanli fired the unique blue glaze.It is said that the color of the return glaze is lighter than that of the jilan.Reclaimers are made of many dark flower patterns, as well as in the mouth edge or foot with a matt paste brown glaze.
Top green;1. Return green material best taste.Pottery is recycled and crushed with a hammer. The top green is the one with pearl sand (and red markings).One of the preparation of green material.Each two times plus a stone green money, said above the green.Green is used for mixing water (that is, to add color), the color is clear, so it is also known as mixing water or mixed water materials.
zhongqing;1. One of the taste of recycled green materials.Tao Hui, with a hammer smashed, silver stars (i. e. gray stars) for the middle of the blue.One of the preparation of green material.Every two times the blue plus stone green four-tenths of the same research known as middle-green.The medium green uses to set the color (namely the color contour line) then the writing record is clear.
One of the most beautiful colours of the pigment.The old legend is because it is dyed on the head of a buddha statue.Ming Song Ying Xing[Tian Gong Kai Wu] in: Hui Qing is the west of the Great Green, the United States is also known as Buddha Head Green.
Xi Ziqin’s ligand
Domestic green material name.It was first used in the middle of the Ming Dynasty.According to[Jiangxi Dazhi · Tao Shu] record: Stone green production Ruizhou all places (present Jiangxi Gaoan, Yifeng, Shanggao area).Ming Jia Jing when the burning of imperial vessels, in proportion to match the best stone blue color.Many stones are blue, but not bright.Stone blue is also called stone blue.Some people think that the stone green is” no name son. ”
edge of leek
Domestic green material name.Gaoan, Jiangxi Province.It is black, hard and granular.After grinding fine, add water to mix evenly can be used.Chives edge quite high temperature, kiln fire slightly, decorative is clear and not scattered.Therefore, it must be used in detail.
Wu Min tzi
Domestic green material name.It is likely that the stone is blue.Ming Zhengde Decade (1515) in Jiangxi[Rui Zhou Fu Zhi]: “Shanggao County Tianze Gang have no name, Jingdezhen for painting porcelain.”Also known as painting burning green.”The new Luling black ochre, grinding water painting porcelain embryo, the first colorless, fired Tianlan. Jingdezhen take Wuyuan, burning green, a name no son.”
One of the names of green materials.From the arab countries of western asia, the song dynasty there is an import record.It is also produced at home.Unknown different from the stone, black and brown color, in the form of granular.It can be used as a medicine for internal injury, pain relief and muscle formation of gold ulcer.According to the Ming Xuande three years (1428)[Xuande Dingyi spectrum] records, the Ming Dynasty used domestic materials for porcelain color.Some people think that with no name son, stone green, painting burning green equivalent of a different name.
Sautéed Green with Spicy Sauce
Also known as” no name son. “A cobalt earth mine in Jiangxi Province.After crushing, grinding, mixing water to mix evenly, made of green material.In the embryo on the painting, after the glaze pattern cover does not show the color, into the kiln to burn out into the blue color, so called the painting burning blue.It is the same substance as” unknown different “and” pebble green “.
Pi Tan Zn
Domestic green material name.Also known as equal green.Leping County, Jiangxi Province production.It is used to describe porcelain when it becomes clear, and it is elegant and bright in color.In the early Ming Dynasty, Yongle and Xuande’s dense verdant Su Ma Li Qing were different from each other, and became the characteristic of the blue-and-white porcelain in the period.
Domestic green material name.Yunnan Xuanwei, Huize, Yiliang, and other counties, different ingredients, Xuanwei gave birth to a better.The cobalt content is highest.Appearance is gray-black lumps.After selective washing, calcination, then crushing, grinding, water blending, that is, into blue-and-white materials for painting porcelain, about the Qing Jiaqing years began to use, and then gradually become the main green material.Modern Jingdezhen production of blue and white porcelain is also used.
to call a bead
One of the domestic green materials.Also known as earth.Produced in Ganzhou, Jiangxi Province, it is black hard block.After grinding and grinding, add water and even can be used, generally used for blue and white coarse, because the cobalt content is low (about 1.35%) manganese content is high (20%) Jingdezhen is now used to configure purple glaze.
Kangxi-Qian blue-and-white porcelain
Qing three generations of green flowers are selected Zhejiang Shaoxing, Jinhua cobalt material.Among them, there are two kinds of high-quality cobalt materials: one is” top Yuan Zi “and the other is” leek side”.The former wins with the rich vermilion green, which is the raw material of firing “sapphire blue” and “emerald blue”.The latter with the firing blue pure color deep, the pattern decoration is clear does not fade, the hair appears, is used for the fine tracing blue and white and the item.The mid-Kangxi blue-and-white porcelain represents the typical characteristics and highest level of Kangxi blue-and-white porcelain.In this period, the quality of embryo glaze is excellent, and Qinghua Chun-zheng is beautiful. “Kangqing (emerald blue, sapphire blue) is more pure and mature than the earlier period, but with the Yuan Dynasty to the right type of green flowers and Ming Dynasty Yongle, Xuande Qinghua” Su Ma Liqing “, the Ming Dynasty Zhengde Jiajing Qinghua” Hui Qing “, and known as China’s three best-known blue and white materials. And there is no “Su Ma Li Qing” iron rust mark, “Hui Qing” purple red side of the deficiency. Can be said to be from the Yuan Dynasty mature blue and white porcelain firing, Jingdezhen craftsmen to pursue the true six hundred years of “pure and beautiful” ideal blue and white with no defects. But this most pure and beautiful “Kangxi Lan” (formerly known as Kangqing) to the late Kangxi suddenly disappeared. The exact cause, it is not clear.
Some scholars believe that the “Buddha-head” and “Hui-qing” are not materials, but “pigment” paint is used for painting! The Buddha’s head can not be heated.The material is gray-black, covered with lime glaze or quartz glaze, or feldspar glaze, in the kiln high temperature more than 1300 degrees (reduction) one-time firing! Especially Su Ma from the green material, the most favorite high temperature, the higher the temperature is the more beautiful orchid! Tang Dynasty blue and white is a kind of lime glaze, is a medium-temperature glaze, the highest only to 1250 degrees or so, the higher glaze will drop into waste products.The blue-and-white flowers of the Tang Dynasty are showy, and the transparent glaze is thin, so it is thought to be a pigment, not a cobalt.
The “blue” glaze and other glazes of the Tang Tricolour are all low-temperature glazes with a flux of 700 degrees to 800 degrees.This blue glaze should also be a pigment, not a plaster.