30 Features of Kangxi Blue and White Porcelain (Recommended by Chinese Auction)
1, early Kangxi green flower embryo thick, glaze surface fat is green and white, have shrink glaze and small brown eyes, also have the body and the instrument bottom glaze color is not consistent, the individual utensil mouth often brush a layer of paste glaze, the bottom foot treatment is not very delicate, there is flint red, exposed place can see a ring of fine ring trace.
2. Glaze shrinkage, sand sticking, non-smooth phenomenon, thin white inside glaze, common radial knife mark, some of the same side of the foot wall obliquely cut into a sharp shape, circle foot diameter, many bottles, glasses, cans of the foot appeared step-shaped shape, its folding angle is very straight, commonly known as” two-story stage “or” step bottom “.Double circle foot is also popular in this period of time, especially with Kuilong fold along the washing, the printing box is the majority, the inner circle are shorter than the outer circle, the two circles between the exposed tire without glaze, the circle is wide and thick.
3. In the middle of Kangxi period, because of the further improvement of firing temperature, the foetus is white and hard, and the cross-section is like “glutinous rice cake”.Very few impurities, fetal body thickness moderate, pay attention to repair the tire.There are two kinds of glaze surface: white and white pulp, white glaze surface hardness, white glaze surface slightly loose, occasionally open, there is a bright blue glaze.The middle stage blue-and-white porcelain circle is not as big as the early stage. Some of the ends are polished and smooth as loach back, but there is no rolling circle of Yongzheng blue and white flowers in the later stage.At that time also appeared with fine washing of the clay made of porcelain tyres, commonly known as” pulp tyres”, products such as water pans, ink boxes, and so on, the body is light.
4, The late blue and white glaze, bright blue and white glaze is the majority, also has the powder white glaze, the glaze luster is deep and implicit, the body is heavier than the middle stage, the hardness is high, the base foot is deeper generally adopts the flat cutting, the cutting is neat.
5. The early blue-and-white porcelain was painted in Zhejiang or Jiangxi and Guangdong, showing grey-blue color, poor color, heavy gray-dark and blue-black, and similar to Shunzhi’s blue-and-white characteristics.
6. The medium-term green flower uses the “pearl material” of Yunnan Province. This kind of green flower color material is refined and refined. Because of the improvement of the method of water sinking, it is bright blue and green with no sense of floating.Some are sapphire blue, bright blue but not fiery, it is very different from other Qing dynasty blue and white, the characteristics of the times are very obvious.And has formed a kind of new artistic appearance.People often call the green flowers of Kangxi “emerald blue”, “Kangxi colorful” and “ink is divided into five colors”.Color changes have five levels of color levels, using green material has” head thick, is thick, two thick, just light, shadow light “points.The ancients were very high assessment of the green flowers of Kangxi, said “its blue and white color, see the light, there is a bottle and a can of seven colors, nine colors more, delicate and delicate.” The object picture is thick and light, light strong and weak, different levels of rendering, It is precisely because craftsmen use the skill of color materials skillfully, that is, the method of dividing water, consciously cause many kinds of shades and layers, even in a stroke can also be divided into deep and shallow charm, such as blue and white landscape figures, flowers and birds, etc., regardless of the distance between the mountain and the water, mountains and mountains, All are rich in the level of rhythm, three-dimensional sense, combined with the use of halo-dyeing method, so that it is closer to and achieve the theme of traditional Chinese painting expression techniques, like a ink flower, very ornamental, which is also Kangxi Qinghua highly respected by the world one of the important reasons.
7. Late-stage blue flowers tend to be elegant, some of the gray-blue, some of the scattered halo, there are painted blue, the proportion is not large, painted on cups, plates, dishes and other small vessels.
8. In addition to the traditional white land of the Kangxi Dynasty, there are celadon, green glaze, blue glaze, blue glaze, yellow glaze, blue and white flower, blue and green glaze, green and green, green and green, green and red, green and red, blue and white glaze, blue and red, blue and white glaze, but a lot of color, blue and white color, blue and purple, blue and purple kiln green, blue and blue and white carving.
9, Kangxi Qinghua imitation Ming Dynasty blue and white hair color is also very popular, the proportion is not big, mainly imitation Yongle, Xuande Qinghua Su Niebo green material heavy bright with halo scattered artistic effect.Then there is the imitation into the blue and white equal blue material of the trace, imitation Jiajing blue and white material blue and purple.This period is good at imitating Xuande blue and white porcelain, because the use of domestic cobalt materials, low iron content, good stability, the painted flowers appear black crystal spots, is the use of artificial re-painting accumulation point method, deliberately point dyeing formation, blue and white sinking degree and texture is not enough, glaze is equally green, Individual also has orange peel grain, touch glaze with the hand, more smooth, bumpy feeling is not obvious, and forever Xuan green flower glaze often has undulate shape, overall view, imitation level is still very high.
10. The shape of Kangxi blue and white porcelain is the most abundant period in Qing Dynasty, and the form is varied and varied. There are many different styles in one type, which is based on the needs and conditions of people’s real life. Both furnishings porcelain, but also a large number of daily life porcelain, and a variety of stationery, tea sets, such as raw porcelain, porcelain and imitation antique bronze pattern sacrificial vessels, export porcelain.The export porcelain occupies the very important position in the foreign trade at that time, mainly is the surface flower, the multicolored two varieties, basically is the civilian kiln implement, uses the color partial thick, the modelling is tall, the pattern decoration also adapts to the foreign market demand, the orderliness is complicated, and has many innovative styles.
11. The production of large-scale cutters in the Kangxi Dynasty was the first in the Qing Dynasty, which was closely related to the improvement of forming methods and the maturation of technology.Such as: big mallet bottle, big incense burner, big life character bottle, big market mouth bottle, phoenix tail respect, flower pot, big fish tank, embroidered pier, big cover jar, etc., the overall characteristic is simple and steady, quite masculine strength.Despite the large volume, some up to 80 cm, very little deformation, body interface is not obvious, reflecting the molding and tire repair process.The external outline and turning point of the object are clear, sharp and energetic.Style hard, straight up, thick and simple, powerful, rough and bold, full of masculine momentum, production is very clear and standard, no sense of clumsiness.Small and medium-sized artifacts are original, rigorous and generous, pay attention to the overall effect, not rigid, dignified in the show of beauty.During this period, there appeared many square instruments, such as square plate, square bowl, square hammer bottle, square zun, square flower pot, etc. By comparison, the firing of square utensils was much more difficult than circular ones, which fully demonstrated the high level of the craftsmen’s shape design and the progress of porcelain-making technology at that time.
12. There are many kinds of Kangxi blue-and-white porcelain, which are classified as follows according to some common objects:
Bottle: Kangxi blue and white shape is the most abundant, multi-purpose for display and viewing.Have long neck bottle, early bottle high neck thick, late bottle short neck.Mei bottle small lip mouth, short neck, body plump, many are jade shape bottom, a small number is circle foot, no, have flat shoulder, slip shoulder two kinds, the body is large and light, individual glaze has open plate, body small fetal weight.Cylindrical bottles, also known as elephant-leg bottles, appearance and Chongzhen, Shunzhi basically the same, but there is no Shunzhi high.Clubmallet bottle, innovative style, because of the shape of the south of China’s laundry hammer so named, basically is the kiln products, there are round mallet and square mallet two, the number of the former is more, the latter is less, line processing sharp angle, general height in 46 cm or so.Beijing Palace Museum is a collection of blue and white birthday round mallet bottles, wash mouth, straight abdomen, as high as 77.6 cm, tall, very eye-catching.Such as Kangxi Qinghua Fishermen’s square mallet bottles, are the finest of this kind.The gourd bottle, the mouth edge part increases, the heavy line is beautiful, the bottom has the exposed tire and the book money two kinds, the former imitates the Ming Dynasty characteristic.Cone bottle, jade jug spring bottle compared with the Ming Dynasty neck shortening, abdominal hypertrophy.Gallbladder bottle, bulbous bottle, garlic bottle, water chestnut flat bottle, straight mouth, long neck, flat belly, circle foot, for the Kangxi Dynasty new creation type.In addition, there are eight-side bottles, ribbon ears flat gourd bottle.
13. Respective category: Ringling Zun, also known as paper hammer bottle, is the innovation style of Kangxi official kiln, flat-bottomed inside concave, there are two varieties, most of which are blue flowers and red in glaze;Fengwei respect for the fashion style of the time, because of its mouth, foot shape like phoenix tail, hence the name.It is from the evolution of the flower, beautiful lines, smooth stretch.Most are Kangxi mid-and late-stage products, the majority of non-cash.Kangxi green flower landscape figure picture phoenix tail 73.5 cm high, and blue pheasant peony picture phoenix tail are representative works.Absence of mouth, lute, shaped like a string instrument lute, hence the name.”Shuanglu Zun, Pomegranate Zun, Horseshoe Zun, Tubular Zun, Orchid Ring Zun, Guanyin Zun, Double Ear Respect, etc., its utensil type skimming mouth, short neck, abundant shoulder, under the shoulder gradually close, to the bottom of the outside turn.”
Canisters: General can, first seen in the Ming Dynasty Jiajing, Kangxi Dynasty to continue the Shunzhi style, high and low size.Official kiln all have, but the quantity that civilian kiln occupies is much, early mouth big pot is tall, late mouth small pot is short.Often draw female children play, hole stone flower bird two kinds of patterns, often the bottom does not glaze the tire, the body is thick, has flint red at the foot, the official kiln product size is small, often the abdomen draws group birthday lines, the bottom circle full glaze book has this dynasty 6 words.Lotus seed jars, melon jars, ice plum jars, bamboo-covered jars, painted bamboo jars, in addition to green flowers, there are white glaze green color.Drum cover can, lion button cover can, porridge can, for the Kangxi Dynasty innovative style, more than the kiln products, size is not very large, the shape is short and round, the bottom of the unglazed tire, shoulders symmetrical double round hole, through copper rings, easy to use.Canister covers are divided into two types of domes, the former with more pearl-shaped buttons, and the latter without buttons.
15, Flower Glasses: Most of the big things.Early and medium-term mass production, is basically civilian kiln products.General device type tall, height in 45 cm or so, the volume is moderate.Early simple tube-shaped, flat-bottomed concave.In the middle of the body features bright, began to change, mouth foot out of the stomach, belly up and down each raised a week, the second floor, the foot common writing imitated the Ming Dynasty Chenghua, Jiajing 6-year-old, its two-circle painting is very large, some flowers only painted two circles, some do not write money, Most are larger than foot diameter.
16, pot class: hold the pot, Ben handle the pot;Also known as” Tibetan herbaceous pot “, religious apparatus, is modeled after the Tibetan silver-shaped pot-shaped burn made.Teapot, tea-drinking apparatus, made many practical and beautiful style, good at shape transformation, bamboo-shaped, peach-type, beam-type, handle-type, eight treasure-type, “Fu” shape, “Lu” shape, “Shou” shape and so on.The pot body and the kettle flow, the pot handle proportion moderate, the harmonious unity, the dignified generous.The teapot is often painted with matsutake and bogu.Bogu is the combination of various arts and crafts of the pattern.The teapot with pine, bamboo and plum patterns in the Palace Museum, Beijing, has a clever design, with a cover button and flowing handle shaped into plum branches, bamboo knots and pine trees, is painted with blue and white pine, bamboo and plum patterns, and combines painting with sculpture.The snuff bottle, as a utensil for holding snuff, began to be popular at that time, but the style was single, tube-shaped, also known as firecrackers.Small lip mouth, outside draw twine lotus, fold branch chrysanthemum and han jiang single fishing map, the former many have no money, the latter more write into a four-word copy of the Huanhua year.
Pencil: one of the stationery, the number of many, more thick wall.Compared with the late Ming and early Qing Dynasty, there are obvious changes, the popular bottom of the mouth similar cylinder shape, the largest number is also the most representative.There are also swipes-shaped, bamboo-shaped, waist-type, waist-type more appeared in the early stage, some of the mouth sizing white glaze, is not the mainstream variety.The most common is the jade-like bottom, the bottom of the navel out of the concave slightly, there is glaze, than the outer wall of the glaze to be white, thin, the outside of the navel there are two kinds of glazes and non-glaze, the latter is more.Next is the bottom of the steps, the circle foot and flat-bottomed unglazed tire.There are also three small strip-shaped feet at the bottom.The official kiln pen tube many books long poetry, the poem tail often used in the glaze red seal book “Kangxi Chuangu” Fang Zhang.People’s kiln glaze spread green, multi-painted landscape characters story and flower-and-bird map.Individual has annals such as Kangxi 20 years landscape character pen, Kangxi 13 years landscape pen, this kind of kiln pen with annals, in general, the embryo is thick, the bottom does not have glaze, the mouth edge and near the bottom often has dark carved double string or curly grass line, This kind of dark border decoration is very popular in the late Ming and early Qing dynasty blue and white porcelain, such as pen holder, lotus seed jar and barrel bottle.
Flower pots: flower-raising utensils.The body is huge, the fetal body is hard, steady and thick.Common round, cylindrical, oval, Begonia-shaped, square, rectangular, hexagonal and so on.Stylish shape, simple, well-made, is the late Kangxi Jingdezhen Imperial Kiln Factory dedicated to Kangxi Emperor’s birthday and burning.As an imperial flower-raising device, the upper body of the device appears many auspicious symbols of longevity, such as” pine and crane, “” Shoushan Fuhai “,” He Lu Tongchun “, Yunlong, Yunfeng, Yunmang Ganoderma lucidum, eight celestial figures, but also painted the landscape map, a hundred son map, mouth more broken edge, The bottom of the center has a round hole, along the bottom of the blue and white writing, “Daqing Kangxi year” 6-character regular script horizontal.
19. Disk: For daily life, most of them are small and medium-sized. They are made in the early, middle and late stages.Some difference is not very big, have high foot dish, flower mouth dish, square dish, fold edge dish, apostrophal dish, chrysanthemum plate and so on.The circle is slightly high, comparatively speaking, the glaze surface of the kiln is green, the fetus is more important than the green flower of the official kiln, and it is generous and thick.The bottom of the plate is flat and full of glaze, rare collapse of the Ming Dynasty.Export-oriented porcelain is different from domestic porcelain, mostly broken edge, shallow wall.Extremely light, very delicate, high quality, blue and white gorgeous, decorative both traditional flower and bird patterns, as well as Western flowers and pavilions, with an exotic atmosphere.From the literature, most of them are sold to Europe. Many museums in many countries have a large collection of Kangxi blue-and-white porcelain for export.The bottom of the device is often written with the word “jade”.
20, Bowl: There are high-foot bowl, covered bowl, box bowl, lying bowl, open bowl, folding bowl, waist wrist, deep abutment-type bowl, four sets of horn bowl, small bucket bowl for the Kangxi Dynasty innovative style, in addition to blue flowers, often painted phoenix bamboo patterns, using the technique of passing branches, this from outside to inside, for the original use of the time, the end of a wide, graceful.Foot inside write “imperial gift pure one” both sides frame money.Kangxi blue and white bowl pictures are not very dense, decor appropriate.Guanyao is mainly composed of dragon and phoenix. It is common to have cloud bats, clouds, squirrel grapes, peony flowers, eight treasures and gossip patterns.
Box class: upper and lower union is tight, cover face is flat, circle is low, flat cut.At the bottom of the box, there are two characters: “Qing”, “Qing Kang Xi” and “Da Qing Kang Xi”.Another round box, four round box, small ink box, bell box, chess box, and so on.
The cup class: has the high foot cup, the wine cup, the tea cup, the chi ear cup, the bell bell cup, the bell cup big mouth, the deep abdomen, the small circle foot, the foot height, because of its appearance extremely makes the bell to be named, also called the back bell no, is the Kang Xi dynasty rich dynasty style implement.There are two types of fetuses.Guan kiln tire thin open much, civilian kiln tire thickness many skimming mouth;Set cup, mostly three sets of small and medium-sized synthesis, the outer wall often painted poetic characters, the number of the late Yong and Qian increased significantly 8,10.After Qianlong, many sets of cups are pastel.The December flower poem sentence cup, is one of the Kangxi Dynasty official kilns blue and white famous products.Belonging to fine objects, Jingdezhen has been burned in batches.In addition to the blue and white, there are a large number of palace products, this flower cup on the production of high technical requirements, difficult to burn.Fetal thin as paper, light and transparent, blue and white elegant, crystal-clear and smooth, has reached the degree to see only glaze and not see the fetus.The ancients used “fear of the wind to go away, but also worried about the sun.” It is appropriate to describe it.The cup is painted on one side to represent the flowers of December, the other side of the book five words or seven words of the poem, the poem is followed by a seal book, “appreciate” the word.December flower cup after the Kangxi Dynasty also has a small amount of cooking, is more powder enamel, sets of not much, rarely see blue and white.
23. The patterns of antique bronze ware are: furnace, wine, wine, cup, bean and so on.Some not only the modelling imitates, the pattern decoration also draws the ancient bronze grain, such as the gluttonous grain, the animal surface grain and so on.
The Qing-hua porcelain of the Ming Dynasty was highly admired in the Kangxi Dynasty. According to the documents, most of them were made during the period from forty-four to fifty-one years when Lang Ting was governor of Jiangxi Province.From the historical point of view, imitating the Ming Dynasty Qing Hua, Xuande Dynasty to the most, and the most successful, not only according to the palace Xuande Qing Hua for the blue edition of careful imitation, some will also be Xuande decorative painting in the style of the artifacts.The purpose is to “borrow the ancients to show off the present”.Simulated Xuande Qinghua works, more from Lang kiln, not only the shape, size of the same, decorative, figure is also very realistic, if not carefully observed comparative analysis, it is difficult to distinguish, reached the “and true two”, “than visual declaration into desire for truth” degree.Qingren Liu Tingji’s” in the park magazine “praise Lang kiln” near Fu Lang kiln, Ziguanzhong public office Xijiang also created. Antique, and the true two, its copy into, Xuanshui, glaze color, orange brown eyes, the words cool, extremely difficult to distinguish. “It shows that Kangxi imitated Xuande Qinghua to achieve high success.
24, Kangxi green flower decoration subject matter is extensive, all-inclusive, the pattern layout is ingenious and reasonable, and the shape organically combines together.Especially in the decorative aspect of the kiln, the blue and white flowers have special aesthetic feeling and distinct time character, which can be closely connected with the real life, reflecting the large number of patterns of thought and living customs at that time, the level of painting porcelain craftsmen is by no means lower than that of the official kiln painters, and break through the shackles of the pattern of the official kilns of the past dynasties. Free play of folk popular characteristics of the art style.And the official kiln blue and white meticulous, excellence, decorative symmetry, balance, neat, theme, eye-catching, prominent, still represents the highest level of painting porcelain technology at that time.
25, Kangxi Qinghua in painting techniques, but also a lot of reform and innovation, formed its own unique style.The traditional method of painting blue and white patterns in Ming Dynasty was changed, i. e. single-line flat coating. Instead, the technique of “parting water and caving” was adopted and the focus perspective technique of western painting was used for reference.Painting on porcelain billet, a color that can show a variety of shades of light and light.The so-called “split-water crack” is to use the pen tip dipped in different materials on the tire water description, the technical requirements are high, few of three or five, the most can be divided into eight or nine color levels.The painting of mountains and stones, mostly using the style of the south song dynasty painting court.When carrying pen hook, dye, crack, wipe, point all kinds of painting techniques and use, this all depends on the painter hand and pen to finish, the composition is diversified, emphasizing the lively and interesting picture, wide vision, regardless of the size of the picture, there is a very perfect situation.It can be said that Kangxi Qinghua Chinese painting techniques, through the pattern of the form, ingeniously and vividly painted on the porcelain, so that China’s porcelain decoration has been further promoted.Some pictures combined with carving, marking and hollowed-out stacks and other techniques.At the same time, it also widely draws on the useful experience of other sister art to enrich its own decoration, especially bronze ware, lacquer ware and weaving embroidery.
26. In terms of materials, the most prominent features are nature and society, reflecting secular life, mainly: plants and flowers, mountains and waters, animals, characters, stories, fairy tales, auspicious patterns and long poems and so on.There are also some woodcut prints from the end of the Ming and early Qing Dynasty, Kangxi Qinghua ever-changing decorative patterns, but also for the subsequent development of Yong, dry blue-and-white porcelain laid a solid foundation.
27. Kangxi blue-and-white porcelain was the most diverse and diverse in the Qing Dynasty.The early Qing Hua generally did not write the imperial year, occasionally see the court or imperial garden in the Ramadan, without double circles, such as the “peace hall system”, “Kangxi Xinhai peace hall system” (10 years of Kangxi), “Kangxi non-son peace hall system” (11 years of Kangxi), “Kangxi Guichou Zhonghe Tang System” (Kangxi 12 years) and so on, Zhonghetang is Kangxi Emperor’s residence in the Yuanmingyuan.Kangxi Qinghua mid-period began to write a large number of imperial year money, are regular script, mainly Qinghua double crime “Daqing Kangxi year” 6 words,3 lines 6 words.The late green flower has 3 lines 6 words, also has two lines 6 words, the latter often does not draw two circles, “Qing” the word “Moon” under the right side of the word is now a horizontal writing, there are a small number of “Qing-year” 4-character regular script.This 4-letter type is also often seen in colored glazes, such as yellow glaze bowls and covered bowls of celadon porcelain.The general style of Kangxi style is the general color slightly light, the font is clear, thin and long, dignified and neat, elegant and powerful, the Xi character writing method has” three ministers and two pen “said, the second half of the four points have straight point and Shun point two, the former is the majority.The distance between the word and the word is relatively large, up and down is not very compact, lofty, distinctive features of the times.
28. There are “Daming year”, “Yongle year”, “Daming Yongde year”, “Daming Xuande year”, “Daming Chenghua year”, “Daming Chengde year”, “Daming Jiajing year”, “Daming Jiajing year”, “Daming Wanli year”, “Daming Wanli year”, and the number of “Daming Wanli year”, the number of the following is to write more than six words, there is a few.
29. People’s kilns with green flowers are more complicated and different than the official kilns, and most do not write the annals, which is related to the provisions of the year of forbidden books at that time.Often write hall money, double call fast hall money, namely live in “fast”, “hall”, “room”, “Xuan”, still have Ji Yan praise money and spend charge chart money.Most are written on the base of the foot, drawing a double circle, no double circle line is very rare, a small number is in the bowl heart, common: “Banyun church system”, “Xingyu church system”, “Zhaoqing church system”, “only good church system”, “careful and virtuous church system”, “Shen De Tang Bo Gu system”, “Apricot forest Xuan system rare play”, “Cong Ju Zhai System”, “Mu Cun Zhai”, “Bai Yun Tang Yi Gu System”, “Ying De Xuan Bo Gu System”, “Quan Qing Tang Antiquated System”, “Zhilan Zhai System”, “Tianbao Church System”, “Su Yunzhai System”, “Three-Yuan Church System”, “Pen Flower Shai System”, “World Gift System”, “and” Neutral Church System “.”In Chuan Zhi Le”, “Yongqing Qi Zhen”, “The Treasure of the Wonderful Stone Treasure”, “The Treasure of Youkun”, “The Treasure of the Dingyu”, “The Legend of Yu Dian”, “The First Singing of Yu Dian”, “Yiyou Ding Yu Ya Zhi Zhi Zhi Zhi Zhi Zhi Zhi Zhi Zhi”, “The Treasure of the Green Jade Treasure”, “, “Shi De Liu Fang Lu”, “Canglang Green Water”, “Wen Zhang Shan Dou”, “generation of articles”,” Xinglin Spring Banquet “,” Ball Lin rare play “,” Ball Lin Xuan Zhen “and so on.Individual objects are only painted in double circles, no words in the circle, some painted leaves, plum blossom, conch, rabbit, Pisces, ganoderma lucidum, knights cup, incense burner, lotus flower and other pattern marks.The word “good” or “blessing” is often written in the foot of the plate and bowl. Some depictions include pen, silver ingots, and the meaning of “always as good as you like”, others describe miscellaneous treasures, such as Fang Sheng.